University of Notre Dame

English to Latin

Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid



ab , abs, a prep. with abl. (1) of motion or measurement in space, [from, away from]. (2) of time, [from, after.] (3) of separation, difference, change, [from] ; so of position or number, [counting from] ; and of the relation of part to whole, [out of, of]. (4) of origin and agency; especially with passive verbs, [by, at the hands of, because of]. (5) [viewed from, on the side of] : 'a tergo', [in the rear]; hence [in connection with, as regards].

abalienatio -onis f. [transfer of property].

Abdera -orum n. pl. , also -ae, f., [a town in Thrace, noted for the stupidity of its inhabitants].

abdico (1) -are [to renounce , reject]; esp. of magistracies, [to abdicate], often with reflex. and ablative of office.

abdico (2) -dicere -dixi -dictum in augury , [to disapprove of].

abeo -ire -ii -itum [to go away]; 'abi' , [be off with you]; 'abi in malam rem' [go to the devil]. Trans., [to retire] from office; [to depart] from life, [die]; in discussion, [to digress]; in form, [to change]; of things, [to pass away, disappear, vanish]; [to pass over] from owner to owner.

abequito -are [to ride off].

abicio -icere -ieci -iectum [to throw down or away]. Transf. , [to pronounce carelessly, break off abruptly ; to get rid of, give up; to dash to the ground, weaken, dishearten]. Hence partic. abiectus -a -um; of position [low, common]; of character [cowardly, mean]; of style, [without force, prosaic]. Adv. abiecte, [without spirit, meanly].

abiegnus -a -um [of fir wood].

abies -etis f. [the silver fir]; meton. , [anything made of fir, such as a ship or spear].

abigo -ere -egi -actum [to drive away]; of cattle , [to remove, steal]. Transf., [to banish, be rid of]: 'uxorem', [to divorce].

abitio -onis f. [going away , departure; place of egress].

abitus -us m. , [going away, departure; place of egress].

abludo -ere [to be out of tune].

abolla -ae f. [a cloak of thick woollen cloth].

aborior -oriri -ortus dep.: of heavenly bodies , [to set]; poet., of the voice, [to fail].

abrado -radere -rasi -rasum [to scrape off , shave]. Transf., [to squeeze out, to extort].

abripio -ripere -ripui -reptum [to snatch away , drag off, remove, detach].

abrodo -rodere -rosi -rosum [to gnaw off].

abrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum [to break off , sever; to remove, dissociate; to break off prematurely, destroy]. Hence partic. abruptus -a -um, [steep, precipitous, abrupt, rough]. N. as subst., [a steep place]. Adv. abrupte.

abscido -cidere -cidi -cisum [to cut off; to separate or take away]. Hence partic. abscisus -a -um , [precipitous, abrupt, short].

abscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum [to tear off , wrench away]; 'venas', [to cut open the veins]; poet., 'abscissa comas', [with her hair torn]. Transf., [to divide or separate].

abscondo -condere -condi (-condidi) -conditum (-consum) [to conceal; to lose sight of]; pass. , of stars, [to set]. Adv. from partic., abscondite, [obscurely].

absolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum [to loosen , to free]: of an accused person, [to acquit].; of a subject, [to dispose of, relate in full]; in gen. [to complete]. Hence partic. absolutus -a -um, [perfect, complete; unfettered, unconditional]. Adv. absolute, [perfectly, completely].

abstergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum [to wipe off , clean away].

abstrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum [to push away , hide]. Hence partic. abstrusus -a -um, [concealed, secret, abstruse]; of character, [reserved].

absurdus -a -um [unmelodious , harsh]. Transf., [foolish, unreasonable, out of place]; of persons, [incapable]. Hence adv. absurde, [harshly, discordantly; foolishly].

abunde [copiously , abundantly]; with 'est' and genit., [there is plenty of] a thing.

abutor -uti -usus dep. , with abl. (1) [to make full use of]. (2) [to abuse, waste]; esp. [to use a word wrongly].

Academia -ae f. , [the Academy], a grove near Athens where Plato taught; meton., [the Academic school of philosophy]. Hence adj. Academicus -a -um,; n. pl. Academica, [Cicero's treatise on the Academic philosophy].

accedo -cedere -cessi -cessum [to approach , come near]; of persons, [to enter upon] a course; 'ad rem publicam', [to begin public life]; of things, [to be added]; 'hic accedit ut', [it is also true that, moreover].

accessus -us m. [approach , access; means of approach, entrance].

accieo -ere obs. form of accio; q.v.

accipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum [to take , receive, accept]. Esp. with the senses, [to hear, feel], etc.; with the understanding, [to grasp, to learn]; also [to take, interpret] in a certain sense; of persons, [to receive hospitably or treat] in any particular manner; in business, 'acceptum referre', [to enter on the credit side] of an account book, hence, [to consider oneself indebted to someone for a thing]. Hence partic. acceptus -a -um, [welcome, pleasant, agreeable].

Accius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; esp. of L. Accius , tragic poet (170-c.85 B.C.)

acclamo -are [to cry out] (in approval or otherwise);with acc. of person , [to name by acclamation].

accubitio -onis f. [the act of reclining at table].

accubitus -us m. [the act of reclining at table].

accuro -are [to take care of , prepare with care]. Hence partic. accuratus -a -um, [done with care, careful, exact, accurate]. Adv. accurate.

accurro -currere -curri (-cucurrri) -cursum [to run to]; of ideas , [to occur].

accusatorius -a -um [of or like an accuser]; adv. accusatorie.

acer (2) -cris -cre [sharp , cutting, keen]. Hence, to taste, [biting]; to touch, [sharp]; of sounds, [shrill]; of smells, [penetrating]; of sight, [keen]; of emotions, [painful]; of understanding, [quick, vigorous, energetic]. Adv. acriter, [sharply, keenly].

acerbus -a -um [bitter]. Hence , of sounds, [harsh]; of looks, [dark, gloomy]; of speech or writing, [bitter]; of events, etc., [painful, severe]; of persons, [morose]; from the notion of unripeness, [premature]. Adv. acerbe, [bitterly, harshly].

acernus -a -um [made of maple wood].

Achaia -ae f. , [the Greek country of Achaia, in the Peloponnese], or in gen. [Greece]; after 146 B.C., [the Roman province of Achaea]. Hence adj. and subst. Achaeus and Achivus, [Achaean, an Achaean].

Achates -ae m. [friend of Aeneas].

Achilles -is and Achilleus -ei m. [a Greek hero , son of Peleus and Thetis]. Adj. Achilleus -a -um.

acies -ei f. [keenness , edge]; of the mind, [penetration, insight]; of the eye, [a piercing look or keen vision]; sometimes [the pupil of the eye, or the eye itself]. Milit., [battle line]; hence [battle, battlefield].

acinus -i m. and acinum -i , n. [a berry; the seed of a berry].

Acroceraunia -orum n. pl. [part of the Ceraunian mountains]; hence [any dangerous place].

acta (1) -ae f. [seashore , beach]; meton., [life of the seaside].

acta (2) -orum from partic. of ago; q.v.

actio -onis f. [action , doing]; 'gratiarum', [the giving of thanks]. Esp. [the action of a magistrate, a proposal]; in the theater, [a plot]; at law, [an action or the bringing of it or right to bring it]; also [a legal formula or speech on an indictment].

actor -oris m. (1) [a driver]. (2) [a doer]; esp. [a dramatic actor , player]; [a public speaker; the plaintiff in an action; a manager of property].

actus -us m. (1) [driving , movement], esp. of cattle; hence [right of way for driving cattle, etc.]. (2) [doing, action], esp. on stage; hence [the presentation of a piece on the stage]; also [a division of a piece, an act].

acumen -inis n. [sharp point; hence the point of remarks , etc.; sharpness of intellect; cunning, trickery].

acuo -uere -ui -utum [to sharpen , whet; to quicken, make expert; to inflame, encourage, incite]. Hence partic. acutus -a -um, [sharpened, pointed, acute]; to the hearing, [shrill]; to touch, [piercing]; of events etc., [sharp, painful]; of minds, [sharp, keen, intelligent]; of orators, [effective]. Adv. acute, [keenly, sharply].

ad prep. with acc. (1) of motion , [towards], to a person or place; 'ad Dianae (sc. aedem)', [to Diana'a temple]; 'ad me', [to my house]; often strengthened by usque. (2) of rest, [at or near]. (3) of time: either [to, until] or [at, about]. (4) of other relations: [towards, for] a purpose; [concerning, bearing on; compared with, in addition to; in conformity with; approximating to, about; in consequence of] an event; [as far as, up to] a certain degree ; 'ad summam', [on the whole]; 'ad verbum', [literally].

adamantinus -a -um [made of steel].

addico -dicere -dixi -dictum [to assent to]; in augury , [to promise well] ; of a judge, (especially the praetor), [to award]; of an auctioneer, [to knock down] a lot; of an owner, [to put up for sale]. Hence in gen., [to give up or over, doom, dedicate, surrender]; partic. addictus, [bound, pledged].

addo addere addidi additum (1) [to give , bring, place]; of feelings, [to inspire, cause]. (2) [to add, join]; esp. in speech or writing; 'adde' or 'adde huc', or 'eo', [add to this, take also into consideration].

adduco -ducere -duxi -ductum (1) [to bring or lead to] a person , place, or condition; of persons, [to bring to a certain state of mind, to influence, induce]. (2) [to draw to oneself, pull in]; hence [to contract]; partic. adductus -a -um, [contracted, taut]; of persons, [strict]. Compar. adv. adductius.

adeo (1) -ire -ii -itum [to go or come to , approach, visit]; 'in ius', [to go to law]; of business, etc., [to undertake, undergo, incur]; 'adire hereditatem', [to enter on an inheritance].

adeo (2) adv. [to that point , so far], often strengthened by usque; of space, [so far]; of time, [so long]; of degree, [so much, so, to such an extent]; sometimes, [even, what is more]; enclitically, with pron. or conjunction, [just].

adfectio -onis f. [manner of being affected]; hence [relation] to a thing or person , or [change, state, condition]; sometimes [favorable state of mind, goodwill].

adfectus (1) -us m. [condition , disposition]; esp. of the mind, [a feeling]; often [friendly feeling, goodwill].

adfero adferre attuli adlatum [to carry to , bring to]; esp. of messages and news; absol., [to bring news, report]. Transf., [to apply, bring to bear]; 'vim' [to offer violence; to cause, bring about; to bring forward] by way of excuse or reason; [to bring] by way of help, [contribute].

adficio -ficere -feci -fectum [to influence , work upon]; with adverbs, [to affect]; with abl. of nouns, [to treat with, present with]; 'nominem sepultura', [to bury]; 'poena', [to punish], 'beneficio adfici', [to be benefitted]; absol., of the body, [to affect adversely, weaken]. Hence partic. adfectus -a -um, [affected, influenced]; with abl. [furnished with, treated with]; absol., of the body, [weakened, sick]; of undertakings, [worked upon], and so [nearly finished].

adfligo -fligere -flixi -flictum [to dash , knock down, knock about; to weaken, discourage, injure]; 'causam susceptam', [to drop]. Hence partic. adflictus -a -um, [damaged, shattered]; of spirits, [broken down, desponding]; of character, [vile, contemptible].

adfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum [to flow to , flow near]; of men, [to stream, to flock together]. Transf., [to flow freely, to be abundant]; with abl., [to abound in]. Hence partic. adfluens -entis, [rich, abounding]. Compar. adv. adfluentius.

adgredior -gredi -gressus dep. [to go to , approach]; with words, [to address]; of enemies, [to attack]; of business, etc., [to begin, undertake, attempt].

adhaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum [to hang to , stick to, adhere]; of places, [to border on, be near]; fig., [to depend on, cling to].

adhibeo -ere -ui -itum [to bring up to , apply, bring to bear]; of persons, [to invite, call in, employ] for a purpose; with adv., [to treat].

adhortor -ari dep. [to exhort , encourage] (esp. of soldiers).

adhuc of time , [hitherto, till now, till then; still, even now]; in gen., [besides, also]; with comparatives, [even, still].

adiaceo -ere [to lie by the side of , be adjacent]. N. pl. of partic. as subst. adiacentia, [the neighborhood].

adipatus -a -um [fatty , greasy]; n. pl. as subst., [pastry]. Transf., of style, [bombastic].

aditus -us m. [approach , access]; hence also [right or possibility of entrance]; 'homo rari aditus', [difficult of access]; concr., [an entrance to a place, approach]. Transf., [opportunity of obtaining].

adiungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum [to join to , connect]; 'adiunctus fundus', [neighboring]; of immaterial things, [to associate, impart]; of persons, [to attach], esp. as partner, friend, etc. Hence partic. adiunctus -a -um, [bound to, belonging to]; n. pl. as subst. [collateral circumstances].

adiutrix -icis f. , of females and f. nouns, [an assistant, aid]; used of [reserved legions] under the empire.

adlegatio -onis f. [the sending of a person on a mission].

adlevamentum -i n. [a means of alleviation].

adligo -are [to tie to , bind to]; of wounds, [to bind up]. Transf., in gen., [to fetter, bind, confine]; esp. [to bind by friendship, obligations, promises, etc.]; pass., [to become an accomplice in, make oneself responsible for]; perf. partic. adligatus, [implicated, involved].

adlocutio -onis f. [an address]; esp. [a word of comfort].

adludo -ludere -lusi -lusum [to jest at , sport with]; of waves, [to play or dash upon].

adluo -luere -lui [to wash] , of the sea.

Admetus -i m. [husband of Alcestis].

administratio -onis f. [the giving of help; direction , government].

admiratio -onis f. [admiration]; plur. [outbursts of admiration; wonder , astonishment].

admitto -mittere -misi -missum [to send to , admit]; esp. of horses, [to let go, put to a gallop]. Transf., [to allow; to admit a crime to one's record], so [to commit]; hence n. of partic. as subst. admissum -i, [a crime].

admodum [up to the measure , up to the mark]; hence, [completely]. With adjectives and other parts of speech, [wholly, quite]; 'puer admodum', [a mere boy]; with numbers, [just about]; in affirmative answers, [certainly].

admoneo -ere -ui -itum [to admonish , remind], of a fact or duty. N. of partic. as subst. admonitum -i, [an admonition].

adoleo (1) -ere -ui [to worship , offer sacrifice, burn a sacrifice; to sacrifice on] an altar; in gen., [to burn].

Adonis -is or -idis [a beautiful young man , beloved of Venus].

adoptio -onis f. [the adoption of a child].

adoptivus -a -um [adopted , connected with adoption]; of plants, [grafted].

adopto -are [to choose for oneself]; esp. [to adopt] , as child or grandchild; of plants, [to graft].

ador -oris n. [a species of grain , spelt].

adoreus -a -um [of spelt]; f. as subst. [a reward for valor] (originally a gift of corn).

adrogo -are polit. , [to associate] in office; in gen., either [to take to oneself ('sibi'), to claim, assume; or to adjudge, grant to another (dat.)]; Hence partic. adrogans -antis, [assuming, arrogant, haughty]; adv. adroganter.

adsensio -onis f. [assent , agreement, applause]; philosoph. [belief in the reality of sensible appearance].

adsensus -us m. [assent , agreement]; philosoph. [belief in the reality of sensible appearances]; poet., [echo].

adsero (2) -serere -serui -sertum [to lay hold of] a slave , and thereby either [claim him or declare him free]; in gen. [to set free, protect, or to claim].

adsertor -oris m. [one who asserts the freedom] of another person or [claims him as his own].

adsessio -onis f. [a sitting by the side of one (to console)].

adstringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum [to tighten , draw together, contract, make fast]; in writing or speech, [to compress]; of persons, [to bind, oblige]; with reflex., 'se adstringere', [to commit oneself to, become guilty of]. Hence partic. adstrictus -a -um, [tight, compressed, drawn together; close-fisted, avaricious]; of oratory, [concise]; adv. adstricte.

adsuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum intransit. , [to grow accustomed]: 'adsuevi' [I am accustomed]; transit., [to accustom]; poet., of things, [to make familiar]. Hence partic. adsuetus -a -um [customary, usual; accustomed to].

adsum adesse adfui [to be present , to be at or near]; esp. [to be present and ready, to stand by]; hence [to support, be favorable to]; sometimes [to be present for a special purpose], esp. political or legal; of the mind, 'adesse animo' or 'animis', [to attend]; of things, [to be near, at hand].

adsumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum [to take to oneself , or take in addition] a person or thing; hence [to claim, appropriate, call in]; in logic, [to state the minor premises of a syllogism].

adsumptio -onis f. [choice , adoption]; in logic, [the minor premise of a syllogism].

adsurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum [to rise up , stand up]; with dat., [to rise in the presence] of a person, as a sign of respect; of feelings, [to rise, be aroused]; of style, [to become elevated]; of material things, [to rise up].

aduro -urere -ussi -ustum [to set fire to , kindle, singe]; of frost or wind, [to nip]. Hence partic. adustus -a -um, [burnt]: 'hominum color', [sunburnt].

advecto -are [to convey often].

advenio -venire -veni -ventum [to come to , arrive]. Transf., of time, [to come]; of events, [to happen, come near, break out]; of property, [to come to] an owner.

adversarius -a -um (1) [turned towards]; n. pl. as subst. [a day-book , journal, memorandum]. (2) [turned against, opposed, contrary]; as subst., m. and f. [an antagonist, rival]; n. pl. [the assertions of an opponent].

adversus (2) adversum. Adv.[against , opposite]; 'adversum ire' or 'venire', [go to meet]. Prep. with acc.: of place, [towards, opposite]; of action, etc., [against, in answer to]; of behavior, [towards]; of comparison, [compared with].

adverto (advorto) -vertere -verti -versum [to turn towards]; of the senses , etc. [to direct] towards an object; esp. of the mind, 'animum' or 'mentem advertere', [to direct one's attention to, to perceive], and of offences, [to punish]; of the object of attention, [to attract]. Hence partic. adversus -a -um, [turned towards, fronting, opposite]; 'solem adversum intueri', [to look straight at the sun]; 'adverso flumine', [against the stream]; 'venti adversi', [contrary winds]; hence, in gen., of persons and things, [opposed, unfavorable]; 'adversa valetudo', [ill health]; 'proelium', [unsuccessful]; n. as subst., [misfortune].

advoco -are [to summon , call]; esp. [to call to one's aid]: as legal t.t. [to call in as adviser, to consult an advocate]. M. of partic. as subst., advocatus -i, m. [one called in to help], esp. in court as [witness] or [advocate].

advolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum [to roll to]; of suppliants , 'advolvi', or 'se advolvere', [to throw oneself down] before a person.

adytum -i n. [shrine]; poet. , 'ex adyto cordis', [from the bottom of the heart].

Aeacus -i m. [king of Aegina , grandfather of Achilles; after death a judge in the infernal regions]. Hence subst. Aeacides -ae, m. [a male descendent of Aeacus].

aedes (aedis) -is f. [a building]; in sing. , usually [a temple]; plur., [rooms, or a house]; of bees, [cells].

aedificatio -onis f.: abstr. , [the act of building]; concr., [a building, structure].

aedilis -is m. [an aedile , a public officer at Rome, in charge of streets, markets and public games].

aedituens -entis m. [keeper of a temple , sacristan].

aeditumus -i m. [keeper of a temple , sacristan].

aedituus -i m. [keeper of a temple , sacristan].

Aeeta and Aeetes -ae m. , [king of Colchis, father of Medea]. Hence f. subst. Aeetias -adis, and Aeetine -es, = [Medea].

Aegates -um f. pl. [three islands off the west coast of Sicily].

aeger -gra -grum [sick , ill], physically or mentally; 'aeger consilii', [infirm of purpose]; 'aegris oculis', [with envious eyes]; politically, [unsound, mutinous]. M. as subst. [an invalid]. Adv. aegre, [with pain, regret or difficulty]; hence [hardly, scarcely](cf. vix).

Aegeus -ei m. [king of Athens , father of Theseus].

aegis -idis f. [an aegis , or shield], esp. that of Jupiter or Minerva. Transf., [a protection, bulwark].

Aegisthus -i m. [murderer of Agamemnon , afterwards husband of Clytemnestra].

aegresco -ere [to fall ill]; mentally , [to become troubled]; of bad things, [to become worse].

aegrimonia -ae f. [grief , trouble of mind].

aegritudo -inis f. [sickness] , esp. of the mind.

aegrotatio -onis f. [sickness] , of body or mind.

Aegyptus -i (1) m. , [a king of Egypt, brother of Danaus]. (2) f. [Egypt]; adj. Aegyptius and Aegyptiacus -a -um, [Egyptian].

Aemilius -a -um [name of an old patrician family at Rome]. Hence adj. Aemilianus -a -um , [relating to the 'gens Aemiliana'; a surname of Scipio Africanus minor].

Aeneas -ae m. [son of Venus and Anchises , hero of Vergil's Aeneid]. Hence subst. Aeneades -ae, m. [a male descendant of Aeneas]; Aeneis -idos, f. [Vergil's Aeneid].

aeneus and aheneus -a -um [made of copper or bronze; hard as bronze , brazen].

aenus (ahenus) -a -um [made of copper or bronze]; poet. , [hard as bronze]. N. as subst., [a brazen vessel].

Aeolia -ae f. [north part of the coast of Asia Minor].

Aeolus -i m. [ruler of the Aeolian islands and of the winds].

aequaevus -a -um [of equal age].

aequalis -e [even]; of places , [level]. Transf., [equal]; esp. of time, [of the same age, contemporary, coexistent]. M. or f. as subst., [a comrade, person of the same age]. Adv. aequaliter, [evenly, equally].

aequalitas -atis , f. [evenness]; of places, [smoothness]. Transf., [equality], esp. [equality of age].

Aequi -orum m. [a people of central Italy].

aequilibritas -atis f. [equal distribution of natural forces].

aequus -a -um [equal]. (1) [equal in itself , even, level]; 'ex aequo loco loqui', [to speak in the senate]; milit., 'aequa frons', [a straight line]. (2) [equal to something else]: 'ex aequo, in aequo', [on even terms]. Transf., of places or times, [favorable, advantageous]; of battles, [even], and so [indecisive]; of temper, [even, contented, easy]; 'aequo animo', [patiently, with resignation]; of behavior, etc., [equal, impartial]; of persons, [fair]; 'aequum est', [it is just]. N. as subst. aequum -i, [level ground; fairness, equity]. Adv. aeque, [in like manner, equally; fairly, justly].

aerarius -a -um [of or belonging to bronze or copper]; hence [belonging to (copper) money]; 'tribuni' , [paymasters]. M. as subst. [a coppersmith]; in plur., 'aerarii', [the citizens of the lowest class in Rome]. M. as subst. [a treasury], esp. [the public treasury at Rome].

aeratus -a -um [made of or fitted with copper or bronze]; hence [provided with money , rich].

aereus -a -um [made of or fitted with copper or bronze].

aerugo -inis f. [the rust of copper , verdigris; rusty money]. Transf., [envy or avarice].

aerumnosus -a -um adj. , [full of hardship].

aes aeris n. [copper ore , and the alloy of copper, bronze]. Transf., [anything made of bronze; a vessel, statue, trumpet, kettle]; 'aera aere repulsa', [cymbals]; 'aes publicum', [public inscriptions]. Esp. [copper or bronze money]; 'aes grave', [the as]; 'aes signatum', [coined money]; also [money] generally, [pay]; 'aes alienum', [debt].

Aesculapius -i m. [the god of medicine]. Hence subst. Aesculapium -i , n. [a temple of Aesculapius].

Aeson -onis m. [a Thessalian prince , father of Jason]. Hence subst. Aesonides -ae, m. [a male descendant of Aeson, = Jason]; adj. Aesonius -a -um.

Aesopus -i m. [a Greek fabulist of Phrygia].

aestimatio -onis f. [an appraising in terms of money]; 'litis' , [assessment of damages]. Transf., in gen., [valuation, worth, value].

aestimo (aestumo) -are [to appraise , rate, estimate the value of]; 'litem', [to assess the damages in a law-suit]; in a wider sense, [to value] a thing or person; hence, in gen., [to judge].

aestuo -are [to be agitated or hot]; of liquids , [to boil, seethe]; fig. of emotional excitement, [to burn]; of perplexity, [to waver].

aestus -us m. [agitation , heat]; of liquids, esp. of the sea, [seething, raging]; also of the sea's [tide] and [spray]; fig., of persons, [dizziness]; also [emotional excitement, heat, fury; perplexity, anxiety].

aetas -atis f. [age]: of human life , either [a lifetime] or [time of life, age]; 'id aetatis', [of that age]; 'bona (iniens) aetas, flos aetatis', [youth]. 'aetas ingravescens' or 'provecta', [old age]. Meton., [the persons of a particular age]: 'aetas puerilis', [boys]. In gen., [time, age, a period of time, epoch].

aetherius -a -um [of the air or upper air]; 'aqua' , [rain]; poet., [heavenly, or belonging to the upper world].

Aetolia -ae f. [Aetolia , a country in the west of Greece]; adj. Aetolus, Aetolicus, Aetolius -a -um.

aevum -i n. , also aevus -i, m., [eternity]. Transf., [time, lifetime, or time of life]; 'flos aevi', [youth]. in gen., [a period of life].

Afer -fra -frum adj. and subst. , [African, from Africa]; esp. [from Carthage]. Hence subst. Africa -ae, f. [the continent of Africa]; esp. either [the country around Carthage] or [the Roman province of Africa]. Adj. Africanus -a -um, [African, belonging to Africa]; esp. as a surname, conferred upon two of the Scipios. Also adj. Africus -a -um; 'ventus Africus', or simply 'Africus', [the S.W. wind] (bringing rain and storms).

Agamemnon -onis m. [leader of the Greek expedition to Troy].

Agenor -oris m. [father of Cadmus and Europa]; hence adj. Agenoreus -a -um , and subst. Agenorides -ae, m. [a male descendant of Agenor].

agito -are [to put in motion , drive about] (cf. ago); of animals, [to drive or hunt]; of water, [to toss]. Transf. (1) [to vex, harry, trouble persons, etc.] (2)[to deal with, be engaged upon, argue, discuss, consider] a subject; [to maintain] a state of affairs; [to conduct] a business; [to keep] a holiday; [to spend] time; so, absol., [to live].

Aglaia -ae or Aglaie -es f. [one of the Graces].

agnascor -nasci -natus dep. , of children, [to be born after their father's will]. M. of partic. as subst. agnatus -i, [a relation descended from a common ancestor in the male line; a child born into a family where a regular heir already exists].

agninus -a -um [of a lamb]; f. as subst. , [lamb's flesh].

ago agere egi actum [2 of 2] 'agere (iure , or lege)', [to go to law]; 'agere causam', [to plead a cause]. Pres. partic. agens -entis, as adj. [effective].

ago agere egi actum [to set in motion , drive]; of animals, [to drive or hunt]. 'se agere', [to go]; 'animam' [to give up the ghost]; 'radices', [to strike root]. Transf., [to incite] to action; [to deal with, be engaged upon; to treat of] a subject;'hoc agere', [to attend to the matter at hand]; pass., [to be concerned, be at stake]; 'actum est de', [it is settled about], so [it is all over with]; 'bene agere cum homine', [to treat a person well]; 'grates, gratias', [to express thanks]; 'pacem', [to keep the peace]; of time, [to spend]; so absol., [to spend time, live]; on the stage, [to act, play]; 'primas partes',[to play the leading part]; legal and polit., [to take a matter up publicly]; [CONTINUED]

agonalia -ium and -orum n. [a festival of Janus].

agrarius -a -um [relating to land]; m. pl. as subst. [the agrarian party] , aiming at a general distribution of land.

Agricola -ae m. Gnaeus Julius , [governor of Britain, and father-in-law of Tacitus].

Agrippina -ae f. [the name of several Roman women , esp. Nero's mother]. Hence Colonia Agrippinensis (now Cologne).

Ahala -ae m. C. Servilius , [master of the horse under the dictator Cincinnatus, 439 B.C.].

ai [ah!] , interjection of grief.

Aiax -acis m. [name of two Homeric heroes , sons of Telamon and Oileus].

ala -ae f. [a wing]; poet. , the [sails] or [oars] of a ship; of a man, [the armpit]; milit., [a wing, squadron].

alaris -e [belonging to the wings of an army]; m. pl. as subst. [allied troops].

alarius -a -um [belonging to the wings of an army]; m. pl. as subst. , [allied troops].

alauda -ae f. [a lark]; also [the name of a legion formed by Caesar in Gaul]; in pl. Alaudae -arum , [the soldiers of this legion].

Albion -onis f. [old name of Great Britain].

albulus -a -um [whitish]; f. as subst. Albula -ae (sc. aqua) , [old name of the Tiber].

Alcestis -is and Alceste -es , f. [wife of Admetus, who saved her husband by dying for him].

Alceus -ei and -eos m. [grandfather of Hercules]. Hence subst. Alcides -ae , m. [a descendant of Alcaeus], esp. [Hercules].

Alcibiades -is m. [an Athenian general , pupil of Socrates].

Alcinous -i m. [king of the Phaeacians , host of Odysseus].

Alcmena -ae also Alcmene -es , f. [mother of Hercules].

alea -ae f. [a game of dice , game of hazard]; hence [chance, risk, uncertainty].

aleatorius -a -um [of a gambler].

ales alitis [winged]; hence [swift]; as subst. , [a bird], esp. [a large bird or bird of omen]; poet., [an omen, sign].

Alexander -dri m. (1) [Paris , son of Priam, king of Troy]. (2) [Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), king of Macedonia]. Hence Alexandria or -ea -ae, f. [a city founded by Alexander], esp. [Alexandria in Egypt]; adj. Alexandrinus -a -um, [of Alexandria].

Algidus -i m. [a mountain in Latium]; adj. Algidus -a -um , [of Algidus].

alienatio -onis f. [a transference , alienation]; 'mentis', [aberration of mind].

alieno -are [to make something another's , let go, transfer; to estrange] one person from another; [to put a thing out of one's mind, to forget]; with 'mentem', etc., [to cause a person to lose his reason]; pass., 'alienari', [to go out of one's mind].

alienus -a -um [belonging to another]; 'aes' , [another's money], and so [debt]; in gen., [strange, foreign, unrelated]; esp. of persons, [not at home, unfamiliar],or [estranged, unfriendly];of things,[unfavorable]. M. as subst. alienus, [a stranger]; n. as subst. alienum, [another person's property].

aliquantus -a -um [of some size , moderate]. N. as subst. aliquantum -i, [a good deal]; acc. aliquantum, and (with compar.) abl. aliquanto, [somewhat, considerably].

aliquis aliquid pron. [someone , something; anyone, anything]. N. aliquid often with partitive genit., [a certain amount or number of]; as adv., [in any respect]. Transf. [somebody or something great or significant]. Hence adv. aliquo, [some whither, in some direction]; adv. aliqua, [by some road, in some way]; adv. aliquamdiu, [for some time] ; adj. aliquammultus, [considerable] in number or quantity.

alis alid , old form of alius, aliud; q.v.

alius -a -ud adj. and pronoun , [another, other, different]. Distributively, [one, another]; 'alii...alii', [some...others]; 'alii alia censent', [some think one thing, some another]. In comparison, [other than], followed by atque, quam, etc. Rarely, in plur., [all other, the rest]; in sing. = alter, [one of two]. Hence adv. alias. (1) [at another time]; 'alius alias', [one person at one time, another at another].(2)[otherwise]. Adv. alio, [to another place]; 'alius alio', [in various directions]. Transf., [to another person or object; for another end]. Adv. aliter. (1) [otherwise, in another way]; 'alius aliter', [in different ways]. (2) [else, in other conditions].

aliusmodi [of another kind].

Allecto or Alecto [one of the three Furies].

alnus -i f. [the alder]; meton. , [a ship of alder wood].

alo alere alui altum (or alitum) [to nourish , support, rear, feed]; hence in gen., [to strengthen, increase, promote, advance]. Hence partic. altus -a -um, [grown, great]. As seen from below, [high], hence, of the voice, [shrill]; of character, dignity, rank, [lofty, noble]. As seen from above, [deep]; of thoughts,[secret, deep-seated]; of time, [reaching far back, ancient]. N. as subst. altum -i, either [height] or [depth]. Adv. alte. [highly, deeply].

Alpheus or Alpheos -i m. [the chief river of the Peloponnese].

alter -tera -terum [one of two , the one, the other]; as a numeral[second], 'unus et alter', [one or two]; in pl., [a second set]. Hence of quality, [second, next best]; of similarity, [another, a second]; 'alter idem', [a second self]; of difference, [other, changed].

alternus -a -um [one after the other , by turns, alternate, interchanging]; 'sermones', [dialogue]; of meter, [elegiac] (with hexameter and pentameter alternating).

alteruter -utra -utrum [one of two].

alveus -i m. [a hollow , cavity, trough]; hence [boat]; also [the hold of a ship; bathtub; bed of a stream; beehive; gaming-table].

alvus -i f. [belly , womb, stomach; hold of a ship, beehive].

Amalthea -ae f. either [a nymph , the nurse of Jupiter in Crete] or [the goat on the milk of which Jupiter was reared].

amans = partic. of amo; q.v.

amaracinus -a -um [made of marjoram]; n. as subst. [marjoram ointment].

amaritudo -inis f. [bitterness]; 'vocis' , [harshness of voice].

amarus -a -um [bitter , pungent]. Hence, of things, [disagreeable, unpleasant]; of persons, [irritable]; of speech, [biting, acrimonious]. Adv. amare, [bitterly].

amator -oris m. [a lover , friend, admirer]; esp.[the lover of a woman].

Amazon -onis f.; gen. in plur. Amazones -um , myth., [nation of female warriors]. Hence subst. Amazonis -idis, f. = Amazon; adj. Amazonicus, Amazonius -a -um.

ambiguus -a -um [moving from side to side , doubtful, uncertain, insecure, unreliable]; of speech, [ambiguous, obscure]; n. as subst. [uncertainty, doubt, ambiguity]. Adv. ambigue, [ambiguously, indecisively].

Ambiorix -rigis m. [chief of the Eburones in Gallia Belgica].

ambitio -onis f. [canvassing for office] (in a lawful manner); in gen. , [desire for office, popularity or fame].

ambitiosus -a -um [going round]; esp. [active in seeking office ,popularity or fame; ambitious, ostentatious]. Adv. ambitiose, [ambitiously, ostentatiously].

ambitus -us m. [a going round , circuit, revolution]. Hence, of things, [border, edge or extent]; in speech, [circumlocution]; in relation to persons, [illegal canvassing for office, bribery, striving after popularity or effect].

ambrosia -ae f. [ambrosia , the food or unguent of the gods].

amburo -urere -ussi -ustum [to burn round , scorch]; of cold, [to nip, numb]; in gen., [to injure].

amethystinus -a -um [amethyst-colored]; n. pl. as subst. , [dresses of amethyst color].

amictus -us m. [the putting on of a garment] , esp. [the toga]. Transf., [a garment, covering].

Ammon (Hammon) -onis m. [a Libyan deity] , worshipped at Rome under the name of Jupiter Ammon.

amo -are [to love (passionately) , be fond of]; 'amare se', [to be selfish or pleased with oneself]; 'amabo te', or 'amabo', [please, be so good]; with infin., [to like] to do a thing, also [to be wont, be accustomed]. Hence partic. amans -antis, [loving, fond]; as subst., [a lover]. Adv. amanter, [lovingly].

amoenitas -atis f. [pleasantness] , esp. of places.

amoenus -a -um [pleasant , delightful], esp. of places.

amolior -iri dep. [to remove by an effort , set aside, get rid of]; 'amoliri se', [to take oneself off].

amor -oris m. [love , passion, fondness, desire]; meton., [an object of love, darling]; personified, [Love, Cupid].

amoveo -movere -movi -motum [to move away , withdraw]; 'se admovere', [to depart]; 'in insulam', [to banish to an island]; of ideas or feelings, [to put aside].

Amphictyones -um m. plur. , [the Amphictyons, religious representatives of the Greek states].

Amphion -onis m. [king of Thebes , husband of Niobe].

Amphitrite -es f. [wife of Neptune , goddess of the sea].

amphora -ae f. (1) [a two-handled jar]. (2) [a measure]: liquid , = about 7 gallons; of shipping, = about 1/40 of our ton.

amplus -a -um [large , spacious, ample]. Transf., [great, important, honorable; eminent, distinguished]; 'amplissimi viri', [men of the highest position]; rhet., [grand, full]. Adv. ample and ampliter, [fully, grandly]. Compar. adv. and n. subst., amplius, [more, further, besides]; with numerals, often = more than.

amputatio -onis f. [cutting off , pruning].

amputo -are [to cut off] , esp. of trees, [to lop, prune]; of limbs, [to amputate]; hence, in gen., [to remove, diminish]; 'amputata loqui', [to speak disconnectedly].

Amulius -i m. [king of Alba Longa , brother of Numitor].

Amyntas -ae m. [name of several Macedonian kings].

amystis -idis f. [the emptying of a goblet at a draught].

anaphora -ae f. in rhetoric , [the repetition of a word at the beginning of several sentences].

Anaxagoras -ae m. [a Greek philosopher of the fifth century B.C.].

anceps -cipitis [two-headed]; hence [with two peaks or edges]. Transf. , [coming on or from both sides; of two natures; ambiguous, uncertain, undecided]; hence [dangerous]; n. as subst., [danger].

Anchises -ae m. [father of Aeneas]. Hence subst. Anchisiades -ae , m. [a male descendant of Anchises, Aeneas].

ancillaris -e [of a maidservant].

Ancon -onis and Ancona -ae , f. [a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy].

Ancus (Marcius) -i [fourth king of Rome].

Ancyra -ae f. [capital of Galatia , in Asia Minor].

Andromache -es and -cha -ae f. [wife of Hector].

Andromede -es f. and -da -ae , f. [wife of Perseus].

Andronicus -i m. L. Livius , [Roman dramatic and epic poet of the third century B.C.].

ango -ere [to press tightly]; of the throat , [to strangle, throttle]; in gen., [to hurt, distress]; of the mind, [to torment, make anxious].

angor -oris m. [compression of the throat , suffocation]; of the mind, [distress, anguish, trouble].

anguineus -a -um [of a snake , snaky].

angustiae -arum f. pl. [narrowness]; hence , of space, [a strait, narrow place]; 'spiritus', [shortness of breath]; of time, [shortness]; of supplies, [shortness, poverty]; of circumstances, [difficulty, distress]; of disposition, [narrow- mindedness]; of reasoning, [subtlety].

angustus -a -um [narrow , confined]; 'habenae', [tightly-drawn reins]; 'spiritus angustior', [constricted breath]; of time, [short]; of supplies, [short, scarce]; of circumstances, [precarious, critical]; of mind or speech, [narrow, petty, limited]; of style, [brief, simple]. N. as subst. angustum -i, [a narrow space]. Adv. anguste, [narrowly, sparingly, in a narrow, confined manner]; of speech, [briefly].

anima -ae f. [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animadverto (animadvortor) -vertere -verti -versum [to turn or give the mind to]. Hence [to take notice of , attend to; to perceive, observe]. Esp. [to take notice of] a fault, [blame, censure, punish].

animalis -e (1) [consisting of air , airy]. (2) [living].

animosus -a -um (1) (anima) , [full of breath, airy]. (2) (animus), [full of spirit or courage]. Adv. animose, [courageously].

animus -i m. [the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling , the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character, disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

Anio -enis and poet. Anienus -i m. [the Anio , a tributary of the Tiber].

Anna -ae f. [sister of Dido]; 'Anna Perenna' , [an Italian goddess].

annona -ae f. [yearly produce , crop], esp. of grain; [the price of provisions, the cost of living].

annosus -a -um [full of years , long-lived].

annus -i m. [a circuit of the sun , year]; 'exeunte anno', [at the end of the year]; 'annos LXX natus', [seventy years old]; 'habere annos viginti', [to be twenty]; esp. [year of office, or of eligibility for office]; poet., [time of year, season].

ante Adv. [before] , of place or time; Prep. [before], of place or time; 'ante urbem conditam', [before the founding of the city]; of preference, [sooner than, above].

antegredior -gredi -gressus dep. [to go before]; philosoph. , of antecedent causes.

antesignanus -i m. usually plur. , [soldiers chosen for a place in front of the standards]; hence, sing., [a leader].

antidea old form of antea; q.v.

antideo old form of anteeo; q.v.

antidhac old form of antehac; q.v.

Antigone -es f. and Antigona -ae , f. [daughter of Oedipus, put to death for burying her brother].

Antigonus -i m. [name of several of the successors of Alexander the Great].

Antiochia or Antiochea -ae f. [Antioch , name of several Asiatic towns].

Antipater -tri m. [name of several kings of Macedonia].

antiquitas -atis f. [antiquity , ancient times; the history of ancient times]; in plur., [the ancients].

antiquus -a -um [coming before; previous , earlier]; absol., [old, ancient, primitive]. In compar. and superl. [preferred, more important]. M. pl. as subst. antiqui -orum, [the people of old time], esp. [ancient authors]. Hence adv. antique, [in the ancient manner]; also antiquitus, [from of old or long ago].

Antium -i n. [an old town of Latium on the sea-coast].

Antoninus -i m. [name of several Roman emperors].

Antonius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens].

anularius -a -um [of a ring]; m. as subst. [a ring-maker].

anulus -i m. [a ring]; 'anulus equestris' , [the badge of knighthood at Rome].

Anxur -uris n. [an old town of the Volsci].

Aones -um [the Boeotians]; Aonia -ae , f. [part of Boeotia, resort of the Muses]; hence Aonides -um, f. [the Muses] ; adj. Aonius -a -um.

Aornos -i m. [the lake of Avernus].

apage interj. [away! be off !].

Apelles -is m. [a Greek painter , friend of Alexander the Great]. Adj. Apelleus -a -um.

aperio aperire aperui apertum (1) [to uncover , lay bare]; hence in gen. [to reveal]. (2) [to open what was shut, open up]; 'ludum', [to open a school]; 'annum', [to begin the year]. Hence partic. apertus -a -um, (1) [uncovered, clear, unconcealed, manifest]; of speech, [clear, intelligible, frank]; of character, [frank, straightforward, open]. (2) [unclosed, accessible, exposed]. N. as subst., [an open space]. Adv. aperte, [openly, frankly].

apex -icis m. [the top]; esp. [the top of the conical cap of the Roman 'flamines' , or the cap itself]; hence any [crown, tiara, helmet]; fig., [highest honor, crown]; gram., [the long mark over a vowel].

Apis -is m. [Apis , the ox-god of the Egyptians].

aplustre -is n. generally plur. aplustria -ium , and aplustra -orum, [the carved stern of a ship].

Apollo -inis m. [Apollo , god of the sun, born at Delos]; 'ad Apollinis' (sc. sedem), [to the temple of Apollo]. Adj. Apollinaris -e, and Apollineus -a -um.

appello (2) -are. (1) [to address , accost, speak to]; esp. of asking favors, [to approach, entreat, sue]; legal, [to appeal to]. (2) [to name, entitle]; hence, [to mention by name, make known]. (3) [to pronounce].

Appenninus -i m. [the chain of the Apennines].

appeto -ere -ivi or -ii -itum [to make for , grasp at, seek]; of places, [to make for or go to]; in hostile sense, [to attack]; intransit., of time, [to draw near].

apprehendo -prehendere -prehendi -prehensum and poet. apprendo , [to seize, lay hold of].

approbo -are [to approve of , assent to; to prove, establish; to make acceptable to] another.

Aprilis -e [of April]; m. as subst. [the month of April].

apud prep. with acc. [at ,near, by, with]; 'apud me', [at my house]. of other relations; 'apud se', [in one's senses]; 'apud me valet', [it weighs with me]; 'apud patres', [in our fathers' time]; 'apud Ciceronem', [in the works of Cicero].

aqua -ae f. [water]; 'aqua et ignis' , [the necessaries of life]; 'aqua et igni interdicere homini', [to banish a person]; 'aquam terramque poscere', [to demand submission]. Esp. [the water of the sea, a lake, a river, or rain]; in plur. [(medicinal) springs]; often [water in the water-clock].

aquaeductus -us m. [an aqueduct; the right of conveying water].

aquarius -a -um [belonging to water]; m. as subst. [a water-carrier or an inspector of conduits].

aquaticus -a -um [living in water , or full of water, watery].

aquatio -onis f. [a fetching of water]; meton. , [a watering-place].

aquila -ae f. [an eagle]; milit. , [an eagle as the standard of a Roman legion]; architect., [gable or pediment].

Aquitania -ae f. [Aquitania , the southwest part of Gaul]. Adj. Aquitanus -a -um.

aquosus -a -um [full of water , watery].

ara -ae f. [altar]; hence [refuge , protection]; 'arae', plur., [name of certain rocks at sea].

araneosus -a -um [full of cobwebs].

araneus (1) -a -um [of a spider]; n. as subst. [a cobweb].

arbitrium -i n. (1) [the presence of witnesses]. (2) [the decision of an umpire]; hence [any decision , judgment, authority]; 'arbitrio suo', [under his own control].

arbuteus -a -um [of the arbutus].

arbutum -i n. [the fruit , leaves, etc., of the wild strawberry or arbutus tree].

Arcadia -ae f. [part of the Peloponnesus].Adj. Arcadius and Arcadicus -a -um.

arcessitu abl. sing. m. [at the summons] of a person.

arcesso (accerso) -ere -ivi -itum [to fetch , call, summon]; legal, [to summon, bring before a court of justice]; in gen., [to fetch, derive, obtain]. Hence partic. arcessitus, [strained, far-fetched].

Archimedes -is m. [a mathematician and inventor , killed at the capture of Syracuse (212 B.C.)].

Arcturus -i m. [the brightest star of Bootes].

ardeo ardere arsi [to burn , glow, be on fire]; of bright objects, [to gleam]; of feeling (esp. of love), [to burn, smart]; of political disorder, [to be ablaze]. Hence partic. ardens -entis, [hot, glowing, burning, fiery, eager]; adv. ardenter.

ardesco -ere [to take fire]; of bright objects [to glitter]; of passions , [to become inflamed]; of strife, [to blaze up].

ardor -oris m. [flame , burning, heat]; of bright objects, [gleam]; of feelings (esp. of love), [heat, eagerness]; meton., [an object of love, loved one].

Areopagus -i m. [Mars' hill at Athens , where a court sat]. Hence Areopagites -ae, m. [a member of the court].

Ares -is m. [the Greek god of war , Latin Mars].

argentarius -a -um [relating to silver or money]; 'taberna' , [a banker's stall]. M. as subst. [a money-changer, banker]; f. as subst., [the office or trade of a banker]; also [a silver mine].

argenteus -a -um [of silver]. Transf. , [ornamented with silver; of the color of silver; belonging to the Silver Age].

Argos n. and Argi -orum , m. pl. [Argos, capital of Argolis in the Peloponnese]. Adj. Argeus and Argivus -a -um; plur. subst. Argivi, m. [the Argives or Greeks]. Hence f. subst. Argoles -idis, [the district Argolis]; adj. Argolicus -a -um.

argumentatio -onis f. [the bringing forward of a proof].

arguo -uere -ui -utum [to put in clear light; to declare , prove; to accuse, blame, expose, convict]. Hence partic. argutus -a -um: to the eye, [expressive, lively]; to the ear, [piercing, shrill, noisy]; of omens, [clear, significant]; of persons, [sagacious, cunning]. Adv. argute, [sagaciously].

Argus -i m. [the hundred-eyed guardian of Io].

argutiae -arum f. pl. [liveliness , animation]; of the mind, [cleverness, sagacity, cunning].

Ariadna -ae and Ariadne -es f. [daughter of Minos of Crete].

aridus -a -um adj. [dry , arid, thirsty]; 'febris', [parching]; 'crura', [shrivelled]; of living conditions, [meager]; intellectually, [dry, jejune]; of character, [avaricious]. N. as subst., [dry ground].

arista -ae f. [the beard of an ear of grain]; hence [the ear itself]; also [a harvest].

Aristoteles -is and -i m. [the Greek philosopher , pupil of Plato, founder of the Peripatetic school]. Adj. Aristoteleus and Aristotelius -a -um.

arma -orum n. pl. [defensive arms , armor, weapons of war]; hence [war, soldiers, military power; protection, defense];in gen. [tools, equipment].

armamenta -orum n. pl. [implements , tackle], esp. of a ship.

armus -i m. [shoulder or shoulder-blade]; also , of an animal, [the side].

Arnus -i m. [chief river of Etruria] (now Arno).

aro -are [to plow , farm, cultivate]. Transf., [to furrow, wrinkle]; of ships, [to plow] the sea.

Arpinum -i n. [a Volscian hill-town , birthplace of Cicero]; adj. and subst. Arpinas -atis; adj. Arpinus -a -um.

ars -tis f. (1) [skill , method, technique]; 'ex arte', [according to the rules of art]. (2) [an occupation, profession]. (3) concrete, in plur., [works of art]. (4) [conduct, character, method of acting]; 'bonae artes', [good qualities].

Artaxerxes -is m. [name of several Persian kings].

articularis -e [of the joints]; 'morbus' , [gout].

articulus -i m.: in the body , [a small joint]; in plants, [a knob, knot]; of time, [a moment, crisis]; in gen., [a part, division, point].

artificium -i n. [occupation , craft, art]; also [the theory, system of an art]; concr., [work of art]; in gen., [cleverness, skill, cunning].

artolaganus -i m. [a cake made of meal , wine, milk, etc.].

artus (1) (arctus) -a -um [narrow , tight, close]; 'somnus', [fast, sound]; of supplies, [small, meager]; of circumstances, [difficult, distressing]. N. as subst. [a narrow space]; in gen., [difficulty, constraint]. Adv. arte, [narrowly, tightly, closely]; 'dormire', [soundly, fast]; 'artius appellare', [to cut a name short].

Ascanius -i m. [son of Aeneas].

ascisco asciscere ascivi ascitum [to receive , admit]; of persons, [to adopt]; of things, [to take up, approve]. Hence partic. ascitus -a -um, [foreign, acquired].

Ascra -ae f. [town in Boeotia , home of Hesiod]; adj. Ascraeus -a -um.

ascribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum: of things [to write in , add in writing]; hence [to attribute, impute]; of persons, [to enrol, include, put on a list].

ascripticius -a -um [enrolled as member of a community].

Asia -ae f. (1) [a town and district in Lydia]. (2) [the continent of Asia]. (3) [the peninsula of Asia Minor]. (4) [the Roman province of Asia , formed in 133 B.C.]. Hence adj. Asianus, Asiaticus and Asius -a -um; subst. Asis -idis, f., poet., [Asia].

aspectus -us m.: act. , [looking, sight, range or power of vision]; pass., [sight, power of being seen, look, aspect, appearance].

asper -era -erum [rough , uneven]; to the taste, [pungent, sour]; to the hearing, [harsh, grating]; of weather, [rough, stormy]; of character or circumstances, [rough, wild, harsh, difficult, severe]. N. as subst. [roughness, a rough place]. Adv. aspere, [roughly].

asperitas -atis f. [roughness , unevenness]; to the taste, [sourness]; to the ear, [harshness]. of character or circumstances, [harshness, fierceness, severity, difficulty].

aspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum [to look at , behold, survey, inspect, confront]. Transf., mentally, [to investigate, consider]; of places, [to look towards, face].

aspiratio -onis f. [breathing , exhalation]; in speech, [pronunciation of the letter H, aspiration].

asportatio -onis f. [a taking away , carrying off].

asporto -are [to carry off , take away].

asylum -i n. [a sanctuary , place of refuge].

asymbolus -a -um [contributing nothing to the cost of an entertainment].

Atella -ae f. [a city in Campania]; adj. Atellanus -a -um; f. as subst. (sc. fabella) [a kind of popular farce]; m. as subst. , [a player in these farces]; adj. Atellanius or Atellanicus -a -um, [of Atellan farces].

Atlas -antis m. (1) [a mountain in Mauritania]. (2) [a mythical king and giant , changed into Mount Atlas]. Hence Atlantiades -ae, m. [a male descendant of Atlas]; Atlantis -idis, f. [a female descendant of Atlas]; adj. Atlanticus and Atlanteus -a -um.

atque and ac [and , and also, and indeed]. In comparisons: of similarity, with such words as aequus or idem, [as]; of difference, with such words as alius or secus, [than, from].

Atreus -ei m. [son of Pelops , father of Agamemnon and Menelaus]. Hence Atrides or Atrida -ae, m. [a son of Atreus].

Atropos -i f. [one of the three Parcae or Fates].

atrox -ocis [terrible , cruel, horrible]; of human character, [harsh, fierce, severe]. Adv. atrociter.

Attalus -i m. [name of several kings of Pergamum]: adj. Attalicus -a -um.

attenuo -are [to make thin , reduce, weaken]. Hence partic. attenuatus, [made weak]; of style, [abbreviated, overrefined, or unadorned]; adv. attenuate, [simply, without ornament].

Attica -ae f. [Attica , the district of Greece containing Athens].

Atticus (2) T. Pomponius , [the friend of Cicero].

attingo -tingere -tigi -tactum [to touch , to reach]; of places, [to border upon]; of enemies, [to attack, strike]. Transf., [to handle, manage, be concerned or connected with]; of feelings, [to affect] a person; in writing or speech, [to touch upon, to mention].

attribuo -uere -ui -utum [to allot , assign, hand over]. Transf., in gen., [to give, ascribe, add]; of taxes, [to impose]. N. of partic. as subst. attributum -i, [a predicate, attribute].

attributio -onis f. [the assignment of a debt]; rhet. [an attribute].

auctor -oris m. [one who gives increase]. Hence (1) [an originator , causer, doer; founder of a family; architect of a building; author of a book; originator of or leader in an enterprise; source of or warrant for a piece of information]. (2) [a backer, supporter, approver, surety].

auctoritas -atis f. (1) [support , backing, lead, warrant]; polit., [sanction] (esp. of the senate). (2) [power conferred, rights, command]; legal, [title]. (3) in gen., [influence, authority, prestige]; meton., [an influential person].

audio -ire [to hear , listen; to learn a thing by hearing]; sometimes [to listen to and believe (or obey)]; rarely [to be called]; 'bene audire', [to be well spoken of]. Hence partic. audiens -entis, as adj., [obedient];as subst. [a hearer].

auditorium -i n. [a place of audience , lecture-room, court of justice, etc.].

auditus -us m. [hearing , sense of hearing]; concr., [a report].

aufero auferre abstuli ablatum [to carry away , remove]; in bad sense, [to make away with, carry off, steal].

augeo augere auxi auctum [to enlarge , increase]; of rivers, in pass., [to be swollen]; in speech, [to extol, set forth]; with abl., [to enrich with, furnish with]; in transit. (rare), [to grow]. Hence partic. auctus -a -um, [increased, enriched].

auguralis -e [relating to an augur or augury]; n. as subst. augurale -is , [part of the Roman camp, where auspices were taken].

auguratus -us m. [the office of augur].

augurium -i n. [the office and work of an augur , observation and interpretation of omens, augury]; in gen., [an omen, prophecy, presentiment].

Augusta -ae f. [a name for any female relative of the Roman emperor , or town named after him].

Augustalis -e [belonging to or in honor of the Emperor Augustus].

aulaeum -i n. usually plur. , [embroidered work, tapestry, curtains (esp. of a theater)].

aulicus -a -um [of the court , princely].

aura -ae f. [air] , esp. [air breathed or blowing, breath, wind]; poet., esp. plur., [upper air, heaven]; 'superas ad auras', [to the light of day]; 'ferre sub auras', [to make known]; poet. (rarely), [smell, glitter, or echo].

aurarius -a -um [golden , of gold]; f. as subst., [a gold mine].

Aurelius -a -um [name of a Roman plebeian gens].

aureus -a -um [golden , made of gold or adorned with gold]; poet., [of the color of gold], and, in gen., [excellent, beautiful].

auricula -ae f. [the lobe of the ear]; in gen. , [the ear].

auriga -ae c. [charioteer , driver]; of a ship, [helmsman]; as a constellation, [the Wagoner].

auris -is f. [the ear]; hence [hearing]; of a plow , [the earth- or mould-board].

aurora -ae f. [dawn , break of day]; personified, [Aurora, goddess of morning]. meton., [the east].

aurum -i n. [gold; anything made of gold , gold plate, coin, a cup, ring, etc.; the golden age].

ausculto -are [to hear attentively , listen to]; sometimes also [to obey]; of servants, [to attend, wait].

ausim as subjunctive of audeo; q.v.

auspex -icis c. [one who watches birds and divines from them]; esp. [an official witness of marriage contracts]; poet. , in gen., [a leader].

auspicium -i n. [divination by means of birds , the taking of or right to take auspices]. Transf., [any omen or sign]; poet. [leadership, guidance].

Automedon -ontis m. [charioteer of Achilles].

auxilium -i n. [help , aid, assistance]; milit., often plur., [auxiliary troops], or in gen., [military power].

aveho -vehere -vexi -vectum [to carry off , bear away]; pass., [to ride or sail off].

Aventinum -i n. and Aventinus -i , m. [the Aventine, one of the seven hills of Rome].

averto (avorto) -vertere -verti (-vorti) -versum (-vorsum) [to turn away , remove]: 'flumina', [to divert]; of feelings, [to estrange]; of property, [to carry off, appropriate, embezzle]; poet., intransit., [to retire]. Hence partic. aversus -a -um, [turned away, backward, behind]; of feeling, [disinclined, unfavorable, hostile].

aviarium -i n. [an aviary]; also [the haunts of wild birds].

avis -is f. [a bird]; often [a bird of omen] , and in gen., [an omen].

avitus -a -um [of a grandfather , ancestral].

avius -a -um: of places [out of the way , untrodden]; of persons, [wandering, astray, lost].

avoco -are [to call away , or off, to withdraw, remove, divert].

axis (or assis) -is m. [an axle]. Hence (1) [a wheel]; meton. , [a chariot, wagon]. (2) [the axis of the earth]; meton. [the north pole or the heavens]; 'sub axe', [in the open air]. (3) [a board, plank].

Baccha -ae f. [a Bacchante , female worshipper of Bacchus].

Bacchanal -is n. [the place where Bacchus was worshipped]; plur. Bacchanalia -ium , [the Greek festival of Dionysus or Bacchus].

bacchor -ari dep. [to celebrate the festival of Bacchus]; as passive , of places, [to be made the scene of Bacchic revels]; in gen., [to rage, rave like a Bacchante]. Partic. bacchantes = Bacchae; see Baccha.

Bacchus -i m. [the god of wine]; meton. , [the vine, or wine, or the Bacchic cry (Io Bacche)]. Adj. Baccheus, Bacchicus, Bacchius -a -um.

Baetis -is m. [a river in Spain]; adj. Baeticus -a -um , [relating to the Baetis]; f. subst. Baetica -ae, f. [the Roman province of Baetica on the Baetis].

Baiae -arum f. pl. [a holiday-resort on the coast of Campania]; adj. Baianus -a -um.

balatus -us m. [the bleating of sheep or goats].

balneator -oris m. [the keeper of a bath].

barathrum -i n. [a pit , abyss; esp. of the lower world].

barbaria -ae f. [a foreign country] , as opposed to Greece and Rome; [want of culture, rudeness, savagery].

barbaries -ei f. [a foreign country] , as opposed to Greece and Rome; [want of culture, rudeness, savagery].

basilicus -a -um [royal , kingly, princely]. M. as subst., [the best cast of the dice]; n. as subst., [a royal robe]; f. as subst., basilica -ae, [a basilica, a building with double colonnades, where merchants met and courts were held]. Adv. basilice, [royally].

Bassareus -ei m. [a name of Bacchus].

Belgae -arum m. pl. [the Belgae , a warlike people in the north of Gaul].

bellicus -a -um [of war , warlike]. N. as subst. bellicum -i, [the signal for march or attack].

Bellona -ae f. [the goddess of war].

bellum -i n. (old form , duellum), [war, fighting]; 'in bello', or loc., 'belli', [in time of war].

belua -ae f. [a beast , large animal]; as a term of reproach, [monster, brute, beast].

beluosus -a -um [full of monsters].

Belus -i m. [a king , founder of Babylon]. Hence f. pl. subst., Belides -um, [the granddaughters of Belus, the Danaides].

beneficiarius -a -um [of a favor]; m. pl. as subst. , [privileged soldiers].

benignus -a -um [kind , friendly, generous]; of things, [abundant, fruitful]. Adv. benigne, [kindly, generously]; colloq., 'benigne dicis', [much obliged] (accepting or refusing an offer).

beo -are [to bless , enrich, make happy]. Hence partic. beatus -a -um, [happy, blessed, prosperous; well off]; n. as subst. [happiness]. Adv. beate, [happily].

beta (2) n. indecl. [beta , the second letter of the Greek alphabet].

bibliotheca -ae and bibliothece -es , f. [a collection of books, library].

bibulus -a -um [fond of drinking , thirsty]; 'charta', [blotting paper].

bicolor -oris [of two colors].

biduum -i n. [a space of two days]; abl. , biduo, [in the course of two days].

biennium -i n. [a space of two years].

bifer -fera -ferum of a tree , [bearing fruit twice a year].

biformatus -a -um [of double form].

biformis -e [of double form].

bigae -arum f. pl. (and sing. biga -ae) [a pair of horses] , or [a chariot drawn by a pair].

bigatus -a -um [stamped with the effigy of a pair of horses]; m. as subst. , [a silver coin so marked].

biiugis -e and biiugus -a -um [yoked two together]; m. pl. as subst. , [a pair of horses or a chariot drawn by a pair].

bimaritus -i m. [the husband of two wives].

bimembris -e [having two kinds of limbs]; m. pl. as subst. , [Centaurs].

bini -ae -a [twofold]. Hence [two apiece] , sometimes simply [two]; of things that match, [a pair]; 'findi in bina', [to be cleft in twain]; 'bis bina', [twice two].

binoctium -i n. [a space of two nights].

biremis -e [two-oared]; f. as subst. , [a boat with two oars or a ship with two banks of oars].

Boeoti -orum or -um and Boeotii , m. pl. [the inhabitants of Boeotia, a district in Greece to the west of Attica].

Boii -orum m. pl. [a Celtic people of north Italy , Germany and Gaul].

bolus -i m. [a throw]; hence [the haul or catch] of a fishing net.

bonus -a -um compar. melior -ius; superl. optimus -a -um; [good]; in gen. , [good of its kind]; 'nummi boni', [genuine coin]; 'bona aetas',[youth]; 'bona verba', [words of good omen]; 'bona pars', [a good (considerable) proportion]; in a particular respect of tools, workmen, etc. [useful, efficient]; morally, [good, virtuous, honest, kind]; polit., [patriotic, loyal]. N. as subst. bonum -i, [good]; in gen., [profit, advantage]; 'bonum publicum', [the common weal]; 'cui bono fuisset', [for whose advantage]; materially, usually pl., [goods, property]; morally, [the good]; 'summum bonum', [the supreme good].

bos bovis c. (1) [ox , bullock, cow]; 'bos Lucas', [elephant]. (2) [a kind of flat fish].

Bosporus (Bosphorus) -i m. [name of various straits , esp. those between Thrace and Asia Minor].

bracatus (braccatus) -a -um [wearing breeches]; 'Gallia Bracata' , [Gaul on the north side of the Alps].

bracchium -i n. [the forearm , arm from elbow to wrist; any limb of a living creature; any other thing like an arm, e.g. branch, spur, yard, outwork of a fortification, mole].

bractea (brattea) -ae f. [a thin plate of metal; gold leaf].

breviloquentia -ae f. [brevity of speech].

brevis -e [short] , in space or time; of water, [shallow]; of living things, conditions, etc., [short-lived]; of style, [concise]; n. abl. brevi, [shortly, soon, briefly]; n. pl. as subst. brevia -ium, [shallows, shoals]. Adv. breviter, [shortly, briefly].

brevitas -atis f. [shortness] , in space or time; of style, [brevity, conciseness].

Bromius -i m. [a surname of Bacchus].

Brutti (Brutii Brittii) -orum , m. [the inhabitants of the southern extremity of Italy].

Brutus -i m. [a cognomen of the Roman gens Iunia].

buccula -ae f. [a small cheek]; of a helmet , [beaver, visor].

buleuterion -i n. [the place of meeting of a Greek council].

bumastus -i f. [a kind of vine].

buris -is m. [the crooked hinder part of the plow].

buxus -i f. and buxum -i , n. [the evergreen box tree; box wood; an article made of box wood].

Cadmus -i m. [the founder of Thebes]; adj. Cadmeus -a -um , [Theban].

cado cadere cecidi [to fall , sink, drop]; 'vela cadunt', [are furled]; 'iuxta solem cadentem', [in the west]; of living beings, often [to fall in death, die]; hence [to be destroyed, to subside, sink, flag, fail]; 'cadere animis', [to lose heart]; with in or sub, [to come under, be subject to]; with in, [to agree with, be consistent with]; of events, [to fall out, happen]; of payments, [to fall due].

Caecilius -a -um [name of a plebeian gens].

caelatura -ae f. [the art of chasing or engraving; an engraving].

caelebs -libis [unmarried , single] (of men); of trees, [to which no vine is trained].

Caelius -a -um [name of a Roman plebeian gens]; 'Caelius mons' , [a hill in Rome].

caelum (2) -i n. [the heavens , sky, air, climate]. Esp. [heaven] as the home of the gods; fig., [heaven] as the height of joy, renown, etc.

Caere n. [a very old city of Etruria]; adj. Caeres -itis and -etis.

caeruleus (poet. also caerulus) -a -um [blue , dark blue] esp. of the sea or sky.

Caesar -aris m. [a Roman family name of the gens Iulia]; esp. of C. Iulius Caesar , the general and dictator, and later of all emperors.

caesaries -ei f. [hair , a head of hair].

caesim [with cutting]; fig. of style , [in short sentences].

caesius -a -um [bluish gray] (esp. of eyes).

caespes (cespes) -itis m. [a turf , sod]. Transf. [a hut or altar of turf].

Calabria -ae f. [the peninsula at the southeast extremity of Italy]; adj. and subst. Calaber -bra -brum , [Calabrian, a Calabrian].

calamus -i m. [reed]; hence [anything made of reed , e.g. a pen, a reed pipe, an arrow].

calathus -i m. [a wicker basket]; and of other containers , e.g. [a milk-pail, wine-bowl].

calculus -i m. [a little stone , pebble]. Esp. [a piece used in the Roman game of draughts; a voting pebble; a counter for reckoning]; hence [a calculation].

Caledonia -ae f. [the highlands of Scotland]; adj. Caledonius -a -um.

caleo -ere -ui [to be warm , to glow]; of feeling, etc. [to be inflamed, aroused, excited].

Calliope -es and Calliopea -ae f. [Calliope , the Muse of epic poetry].

Calpurnius -a -um [name of a Roman plebeian gens].

calva -ae f. [the bald scalp of the head].

Camena -ae f. usually pl. , [Latin goddesses of poetry], identified with the Greek Muses.

Camillus -i m. [cognomen of several members of the gens Furia].

Campania -ae f. [a district of Central Italy].

campus -i m. [a level space , plain, field]; esp. of [the Campus Martius at Rome, as a place for various exercises, and for meetings of the comitia]. Transf., [any free space, field, or theater of action; any level surface]; poet., [the sea].

cancer -cri m. [crab; a sign of the Zodiac]; meton. , [the south, or summer heat; the disease cancer].

candidatus -a -um [clothed in white]; as subst. [a candidate for office].

candidus -a -um [shining white]; of persons , with the suggestion of beauty, [fair]. Transf., of time or fortune, [happy]; of writing, [clear, lucid]; of character, [honest, straightforward]; of dress, [clothed in white]; 'sententia candida', [a vote for acquittal]. N. as subst. candidum -i, [white color]. Adv. candide, [in white; clearly, candidly].

candor -oris m. [shining whiteness , luster]; of character, [sincerity, candor]; of writing, [clarity, simplicity].

canicula -ae f. [little bitch] sometimes a term of abuse. Transf. , [Dog-star, Sirius; the worst throw at dice].

caninus -a -um [of a dog , canine]. Transf. [snarling, spiteful];'littera', [the letter R].

canis -is f. [dog , hound]; of persons, as a term of abuse; in dice, [the worst throw].

canities -ei f. [whitish-gray color] , esp. of the hair; meton., [gray hair, old age].

cano canere cecini cantum [to sing or play]. Intransit. [to sing]; of cocks , [to crow]; of frogs, [to croak]; also (with abl.), [to play on an instrument]; 'canere receptui', [to sound the signal for retreat]; of instruments, [to sound]. Transit.: (1) [to sing with the voice].(2) [to sing of, celebrate in song]. (3) [to sound or play an instrument]. (4) [to prophesy].

canthus -i m. [the tire of a wheel].

cantito -are [to sing or play often].

canto -are -avi -atum [to sing or play]. Intransit. , of persons,[to sing]; of cocks, [to crow]; also [to play on an instrument]; of instruments, [to sound]. Transit. (1) [to sing]. (2) [to sing of, celebrate, continually mention]. (3) [to predict].

Capena -ae f. [a town in Etruria;]: adj. Capenus -a -um; 'porta Capena' , [a gate in Rome at the beginning of the Via Appia].

capesso -ere -ivi and -ii -itum [to seize , grasp eagerly]: of places, [to strive to reach, to make for]; of business, etc., [to take up, undertake]; 'rempublicam', [to enter public life].

capillus -i m. [a hair]; usually pl. , or collect. sing., [the hair of the head or beard].

capio capere cepi captum [to take]. (1) in gen. , [to take, seize]; of places, [to choose, reach, or take possession of]; of business, opportunities, etc. [to take up, take in hand, adopt]; of persons, [to choose]. (2) [to catch, take in a violent or hostile manner]; hence [to attack, injure]; pass. capi, [to be injured or diseased]; 'oculis et auribus captus', [blind and deaf]; also [to charm, captivate, take in]; at law, [to convict]. (3) [to receive], esp. of money; in gen., [to suffer, undergo, take on]. (4) [to take in, hold, contain, keep in]; mentally, [to grasp, comprehend].

Capitolium -i n. [the temple of Jupiter at Rome , the Capitol]; adj. Capitolinus -a -um; m. pl. as subst., [superintendents of games in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus].

Capreae -arum f. pl. [a small island off the Campanian coast] (now Capri).

capricornus -i m. [Capricorn , a sign of the Zodiac].

caprigenus -a -um [born of goats].

captivitas -atis f. [captivity , capture]; collectively, [a number of captives].

captivus -a -um [captured , taken] esp. in war. Transf., [of a prisoner]. M. and f. as subst., [a prisoner, captive].

captus -us m. [catching , taking]; hence [power or manner of comprehension, idea].

Capua -ae f. [chief town of Campania].

capulus -i m. (1) [a coffin]. (2) [a handle];esp. [the hilt of a sword].

caput -itis n. [the head]; meton. , [a living individual], esp. of human beings, [a person]; also [a person's life, existence]; esp., in Rome, [a man's political and social rights]. Transf., of lifeless things, [the top, summit, extremity]; of rivers, etc., [the source]; of persons and things, [the head, leader, chief, headquarters, chief point]; of places, [the capital].

carbaseus -a -um [made of canvas].

carbasus -i f.: heteroclite pl. carbasa -orum , n.; [flax]; meton., [anything made of flax, e.g. garments, curtains, sails].

carcer -eris m. [prison , cell]; in plur., carceres, [the starting-place of a race-course].

carchesium -i n. [a goblet with handles]. Transf. , [the top of a mast, scuttle].

cardiacus -a -um [pertaining to the stomach]; m. as subst. , [one who suffers from a disease of the stomach].

cardo -inis m. [a hinge; any pole or pivot]: 'cardo duplex' , [the ends of the earth's axis; a cardinal point, main consideration].

careo -ere -ui [to be without] (with abl.); of a place , [to absent oneself from].

carina -ae f. [the keel of a ship]; meton. , [a ship, vessel].

caris -idis f. [a kind of crab].

caritas -atis f. [dearness , high price]; esp. [high cost of living]. Transf., [affection, love, esteem].

Carmentis -is and Carmenta -ae , f. [a prophetess, mother of Evander]; adj. Carmentalis -e.

carnificina -ae f. [the work of a hangman; execution , torture].

carpo carpere carpsi carptum [to pluck , pull off, select, choose out]; and so [to enjoy]; of animals, [to graze]. Transf., [to proceed on] a journey; [to pass over] a place; [to carp at, slander] a person; [to weaken, annoy, harass] an enemy; [to break up, separate, divide] forces.

Carthago (Karthago) -inis f. (1) [the city of Carthage in N. Africa]. (2) [Carthago (Nova) , a colony of the Carthaginians in Spain] (now Cartagena). Adj. Carthaginiensis -e.

caruncula -ae f. [a small piece of flesh].

Cassandra -ae f. [a prophetess , daughter of Priam].

Cassiope -es f. [mother of Andromeda].

Cassius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens]; adj. Cassianus -a -um.

cassus -a -um [empty , hollow] ; with abl., [devoid of]. Transf., [worthless, useless, vain]; 'in cassum' or incassum as adv., [in vain].

castellanus -a -um [relating to a fortress]; m. pl. as subst. , [the garrison of a fortress].

Castor -oris m. [twin brother of Pollux]. Hence , ecastor and mecastor, [By Castor!].

cataphractes -ae m. [a breastplate of iron scales].

cataplus -i m. [the arrival of a ship; a ship that is arriving].

catapulta -ae f. [an engine of war , a catapult].

cateia -ae f. [a kind of spear].

Catilina -ae m. L. Sergius , [a Roman noble, killed at the head of a conspiracy in 62 B.C.]. Hence adj. Catilinarius -a -um.

Cato -onis m. [a cognomen belonging to members of the gens Porcia]; adj. Catonianus -a -um; subst. Catonini -orum. [the party of M. Porcius Cato Uticensis , the younger Cato].

cauda (coda) -ae f. [the tail of an animal].

Caudium -i n. [an old city in Samnium , near the pass of the Caudine Forks]. Adj. Caudinus -a -um.

caulis -is m. [the stalk of a plant]; esp. of a cabbage.

causa (caussa) -ae f. [a cause] , in all senses of the English word. (1) [a reason, motive, pretext]. (2) [interest]; abl., causa, [on account of, for the sake of], with genit., mea, etc. (3) [a case at law, law-suit, claim, contention]; 'causam dicere', [to plead]. (4) [situation, condition, case].

causarius -a -um [sickly , diseased]; m. pl., milit., [men invalided out of the army].

caveo cavere cavi cautum [to be on one's guard]; with acc. [to be on one's guard against]; 'cave ignoscas' , [take care not to forgive]; with ut and the subj., [to take care that]; with dat. of person, [to take care for, provide for]. Commercial and legal, [to give security or to get security]; also [to provide, order], in a will, treaty or law. Hence partic. cautus -a -um: of persons, etc., [cautious, wary, careful]; of property, [made safe, secured]. Adv. caute, cautim, [cautiously or with security].

caverna -ae f. [a hollow place , cavern]; 'navis', [the hold]; 'caeli', [the vault of heaven].

Cecrops -opis m. [the mythical first king of Athens]; adj. Cecropius -a -um , [Cecropian, Athenian].

cedo (1) cedere cessi cessum [to go , proceed]: of things, [to turn out, happen; to fall to the lot of] a person; [to change] into something else; [to go away, withdraw, retire]; with dat., [to give ground to, submit to], hence [to be inferior to]; transit., [to grant, yield].

celeber -bris -bre [filled , crowded]; of places, [frequented]; of occasions, [well attended]; of sayings, [often repeated]; of persons and things, [celebrated, famous, renowned].

celebritas -atis f. [a crowd , multitude, numerous attendance]; of a festival, [celebration]; in gen., [fame, renown].

celebro -are [to visit frequently , or in large numbers; to fill; to celebrate, solemnize; to publish, make known; to sing the praise of, to honor; to practice often, repeat, exercise]. Hence partic. celebratus -a -um: of places, [much frequented]: of festivals, [kept solemn, festive]; in gen., [famous, celebrated].

Celeres -um m.[early name for Roman nobles , esp. the bodyguard of the kings]

cella -ae f. [a room]; esp. [a storeroom , or a garret, mean apartment]; in a temple, [the shrine of the god's image].

cellarius -a -um [of a storeroom]; as subst. [a cellarer].

Celtae -arum m. pl. [the Celts , esp. those of central Gaul]. Adj. Celticus -a -um.

Celtiberi -orum m. [the Celtiberians , a people in the middle of Spain].

cenito -are [to dine often].

censeo censere censui censum [to estimate , to form or express an opinion or valuation of a person or thing]; esp. of the censor at Rome, [to take an account of the names and property of Roman citizens]. In gen., [to express an opinion, be of the opinion, vote, advise, recommend]; of the senate, [to resolve].

censura -ae f. [the censor's office , censorship]. Transf., [judgement].

census -us m.[the census , an enrolment of names and assessment of property]. Transf., [the censor's list; the amount of property necessary for enrolment in a certain rank]; in gen., [property, wealth].

Centaurus -i m. , [a centaur, i.e. a monster of Thessaly, half man and half horse].

centesimus -a -um [the hundredth]. F. sing. as subst. [the hundredth part]; hence [a tax of one percent] , or as interest on money, [one percent], (reckoned at Rome by the month, therefore = 12 % per annum).

cento -onis m. , [patchwork]; in war, [coverings to ward off missiles or extinguish fires].

centumviri or centum viri -orum m. pl. [a bench of judges dealing with civil suits].

centunculus -i m. [a little piece of patchwork or a saddle-cloth].

centuria -ae f. [a division of 100; a company of soldiers; a century , a part of the Roman people, as divided by Servius Tullius].

centuriatus -us m. [a division into companies or centuries; the centurion's office].

centurio (2) -onis m. [commander of a century , centurion].

centurionatus -us m. [an election of centurions].

cercopithecus -i m. [a kind of ape].

cercurus -i m. [a species of vessel peculiar to Cyprus; a sea-fish].

Ceres -eris f. [the Roman goddess of agriculture]. Transf. , [bread, grain, corn]. Adj. Cerealis -e; n. pl. as subst. [the festival of Ceres on April 10].

ceroma -atis n. [an ointment of oil and wax used by wrestlers].

certus -a -um adj. [settled , resolved, decided], of projects and persons; [definite, certain, fixed; sure, to be depended on]; of things as known, [undoubted, sure]; 'certum scio', [I know for certain]; 'pro certo habeo', [I feel sure]; of persons knowing, [sure, certain]; 'certiorem facere', [to inform]. Adv. certe and certo, [certainly, assuredly].

cerula -ae f. [a little piece of wax].

cervix -icis f. [the nape of the neck , the neck]; 'dare cervices', [to submit to the executioner].

cesso -are [to leave off , cease work, be idle, rest]; of things, [to be left alone, do nothing]; so of land, [lie fallow].

Chalcis -idis or -idos f. [the chief city of Euboea].

chalybeius -a -um [of steel].

chalybs -ybis m. [steel]; an article made of steel such as [a sword , a horse's bit, the tip of an arrow].

Chaos acc. Chaos , abl. Chao, n. [boundless empty space]. Hence [the lower world]; personified, [Chaos, the father of Night and Erebus; the shapeless mass out of which the universe was made].

charta -ae f. [a leaf of Egyptian papyrus , paper; anything written on paper, a letter, poem, etc.].

chartula -ae f. [a little paper , small piece of writing].

Chauci -orum m. pl. [a Germanic people on the coast of the North Sea].

chelys acc. -yn , f. [the tortoise];hence, [the lyre made out of its shell]

Cherronesus and Chersoneus -i f. [a peninsula]; esp. [of Gallipoli or the Crimea].

chiliarches -ae and chiliarchus -i , m. [a commander of 1,000 soldiers]; among Persians, [chancellor, or prime minister].

chlamys -ydis f. [a large upper garment of wool].

choragium -i n. [the training and production of a chorus].

chorda -ae f. [cat-gut]; usually as the [string] of a musical instrument.

cibarius -a -um [relating to food]; n. pl. as subst. , [food, rations]. Transf., (from the food of slaves), [ordinary, common].

cicatrix -icis f. [a scar]; on plants , [a mark of incision]; also [a patch on an old shoe].

cicuta -ae f. [hemlock; poison extracted from the hemlock; a shepherd's pipe , made of hemlock stalk].

Cincinnatus -i m. [a cognomen of the gens Quinctia].

cincinnus -i m. [curled hair , a lock of hair]. Transf., [artificial rhetorical ornament].

Cincius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

cinctus -us m. [a girding , a way of wearing the toga]. Transf. [a girdle].

cingo cingere cinxi cinctum [to surround or equip the head or body]; pass. , cingi, [to gird oneself]; in gen., [to surround]; esp. [to surround] with hostile intent, or for protection; of persons, [to escort, accompany].

cingulus -i m. [a girdle of the earth , zone].

Cinna -ae m. [a Roman cognomen] , esp. of L. Cornelius Cinna, [supporter of Marius, noted for his cruelty]. Adj. Cinnanus -a -um.

circa Adv. , [around, round about]. Prep. with acc.: of space, [around, near]; of persons, [around or with]; of time or number, [about].

Circe -es and -ae f. [an enchantress , daughter of the Sun]; adj. Circaeus -a -um.

circinus -i m. [a pair of compasses].

circuitio and circumitio -onis f. [a going round , patrol]. Transf., [a roundabout way of speaking].

circumago -agere -egi -actum (1) [to turn round]; esp. in the ceremonial manumission of a slave; of time , circumagi or circumagere se, [to pass away, be spent]; of the feelings, [to influence, bring round]. (2) [to drive about from one place to another; to distract].

circumcaesura -ae f. [the external outline of a body].

circumcido -cidere -cidi -cisum [to cut round , to cut, trim]. Transf., [to make less by cutting, diminish]. Hence partic. circumcisus -a -um, of places,[abrupt, steep,inaccessible]; of style, [abridged, brief].

circumdo -dare -dedi -datum [surround]. (1) [to put something round] , with acc. of the thing placed, and dat. of that round which it is placed. (2) [to surround with something], with acc. and abl. (rarely double acc.).

circumeo (circueo) -ire -ii or -ivi -itum [to go round]; milit. , [to surround; to go the rounds of, to visit]; hence [to canvass or solicit]. Transf., [to cheat, circumvent].

circumfero -ferre -tuli -latum [to carry round , take round]; esp. of the eyes, [to turn all round]; in religion, [to lustrate, purify] , by carrying round consecrated objects. Transf., [to spread], esp.[to spread news].

circummunio -ire [to wall round , to shut in by lines of circumvallation].

circumscindo -ere [to tear off , round; to strip].

circumspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum intransit. , [to look round, esp. anxiously]; hence [to consider]; transit., [to look round at, survey]; hence [to consider carefully]; also [to look about for, seek for]. Hence partic. circumspectus -a -um: pass., of things, [deliberate, well considered]; act., of persons, [circumspect, cautious].

circumtonsus -a -um [shorn all round]; of discourse , [artificial]

circumvectio -onis f. [a carrying round of merchandise]: 'portorium circumvectionis' , [transit dues]; in gen., [circuit, revolution].

cirrus -i m. [a lock , or ringlet of hair; the fringe of a garment].

cis prep. with acc. , [on this side of, within].

Cisalpinus -a -um [on this (the Roman) side of the Alps].

Cisrhenanus -a -um [on this (the Roman) side of the Rhine].

citra (abl. f. from citer) Adv. [on this side , nearer]. Prep. with acc., [on this side, nearer than]; of time, [since]; hence, in gen., [short of, without].

citrus -i m. (1) [the citrus , a kind of African cypress]. (2) [the citron tree].

civicus -a -um [relating to a citizen , civic]; 'civica (corona)', [the civic crown, awarded to one who had saved the life of a Roman in war].

civilitas -atis f. (1) [the science of politics]. (2) [politeness , civility].

civitas -atis f.: abstr. , [citizenship]; concr., [a union of citizens, state, commonwealth; the inhabitants of a city, townsfolk; (rarely) a city, town].

clam Adv. , [secretly, in secret]; 'esse', [to remain unknown]. Prep. with acc. or abl., [unknown to, without the knowledge of].

clamor -oris m. [a loud shouting , cry]; poet., of lifeless things, [echo, reverberation].

clarigo -are [to demand satisfaction] , used of the Fetials.

clarus -a -um [bright , clear, distinct]; poet., of the wind, [making clear, bringing fair weather]. Transf., to the understanding, [clear, evident, plain]; of reputation, [illustrious, distinguished]; in bad sense, [notorious]. Hence adj. clare, [clearly, brightly, distinctly; illustriously].

classiarius -a -um [of the fleet]; m. pl. as subst. , [marines].

classicus -a -um (1) [relating to the different classes of Roman citizens]. (2) [relating to the armed forces , esp. to the fleet]: m. pl. as subst., [marines]: n. sing. as subst., [the signal for battle or the trumpet giving this].

classis -is f. [a group as summoned , a division, class]. (1) [one of the classes into which Servius Tullius divided the Roman people]. (2) [the armed forces, esp. the fleet]. (3) in gen., [a class, group].

Claudius (Clodius) -a -um [the name of two Roman gentes]; esp. [of the emperor Claudius (10 B.C.-A.D. 54)]. Adj. Claudianus -a -um , Claudialis -e.

claudo (1) (cludo) claudere clausi clausum [to close , shut up, make inaccessible]; of military positions, [to blockade, invest]; of prisoners, etc., [to shut in, confine]. Transf., [to conclude]; 'agmen', [to bring up the rear]. Hence partic. clausus -a -um, of character, [close, reserved]; n. as subst., [an enclosed place].

claustrum -i n. [a means of closing or shutting in; bolt , bar; an enclosure, prison, den; a barricade, dam, fortress]; milit., [the key to a position].

clausula -ae f. [end , conclusion]; in rhetoric, [the close of a period].

claviger (1) -geri m. [the club-bearer] , of Hercules.

claviger (2) -geri m. [the key-bearer] , of Janus.

clavus -i m. (1) [a nail , spike]. (2) [a tiller, helm, rudder]. (3) [a stripe of purple on a tunic, worn broad by senators, narrow by knights].

Cleopatra -ae f. [the queen of Egypt and mistress of Antony , defeated with him at Actium].

Clio -us f. [the Muse of history].

clipeus -i m. and clipeum -i , n. [a (round) shield]. Transf., [the disk of the sun; a medallion portrait].

clitellae -arum f. pl. [a pack-saddle , pair of panniers, saddle-bag].

Cloacina -ae f. [the cleanser , surname of Venus].

Clotho f. [the spinner , one of the Parcae].

Clusium -i n. [a town of Etruria]; adj. Clusinus -a -um ,

Clytaemnestra -ae f. [wife of Agamemnon who killed her husband , and was killed by her son Orestes].

Cnidus (-os) or Gnidus (-os) , -i, f. [a town in Caria, famous for the worship of Venus]; adj. Cnidius -a -um.

coactor -oris m. [a collector of money]; 'coactores agminis' , [the rear-guard].

coarto -are [to confine , draw together]; of discourse, [to compress]; of time, [to shorten].

coccum -i n. [the berry of the scarlet oak]; hence [scarlet dye]; sometimes [scarlet cloth or garments].

Cocles [Roman cognomen , esp. of Horatius Cocles, the Roman who defended the bridge over the Tiber against Porsenna].

coctilis -e [baked]; 'muri' , [made of burnt brick].

Cocytus and -os -i , m. [a river of the lower world].2

codex (caudex) -dicis m. [the trunk of a tree]; as a term of abuse , [dolt, blockhead]. Transf., [a book (made up of wooden tablets, covered with wax)]; esp. [an account-book, ledger].

codicarius -a -um [made of tree trunks].

coemptio -onis f. [a form of marriage; a fictitious sale of an estate].

coeo -ire -ii or -ivi -itum [to go or come together , assemble]; of enemies, [to engage]; of friends, etc., [to unite, combine]; transit. 'societatem coire', [to form an alliance]; of things, [to unite, come together]; of blood, [to curdle]; of water, [to freeze].

coepio coepere coepi coeptum (only the perfect-stem tenses are class.: see incipio) , [to begin, commence]. N. of partic. as subst. coeptum -i, [a thing begun or undertaken].

cognominatus -a -um [of the same meaning]; 'verba' , [synonyms].

cognosco -gnoscere -gnovi -gnitum [to become acquainted with , get to know, learn]; in perf. tenses, [to know; to know again, recognize]; of judges, [to examine, hear, decide]. Hence partic. cognitus -a -um, [known, proved].

cogo cogere coegi coactum [to bring , drive, or draw to one point, to collect; to bring close together, compress]; of liquids, etc. [to thicken, curdle]; milit., 'agmen cogere', [to bring up the rear]. Transf., [to restrict, confine; to compel]. Hence partic. coactus -a -um, [constrained]; n. as subst. [thick cloth, felt].

cohaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum: of a whole [to cohere , hold together]; of one thing (or person), [to cling, adhere, be connected to] another.

cohors -tis f. [an enclosure , yard]. Transf., [a troop, company, throng]; milit., [a cohort, the tenth part of a legion]; 'praetoria cohors', [the retinue of the governor of a province].

collinus -a -um [hilly , relating to a hill]; 'porta Collina', [a gate of Rome near the Quirinal Hill].

collybus -i m. [exchange of money , or rate of exchange].

colo colere colui cultum [to cultivate , till, tend; to dwell in, inhabit] a place; in gen., [to take care of, attend to, foster, honor, worship, court]. Hence cultus -a -um, [cultivated, tilled, planted]; n. pl. as subst., [cultivated land]. Transf., physically, [tidy, well-dressed, smart]; mentally, [refined]. Adv. culte, [elegantly].

colonus -i m. [a farmer , sometimes a tenant farmer; a colonist, inhabitant of a colony].

coloro -are [to color]; partic. coloratus -a -um , [colored]; of complexion, [tanned, dark].

colossus -i m. [a colossus , statue larger than life]; esp. that of Apollo at Rhodes.

columen -inis n. [a height , summit, ridge]; of buildings, [roof, gable]. Transf., [chief, summit, crown; support, pillar].

columna -ae f. [pillar , column]; columnae,[pillars as signs of booksellers' shops in Rome]; 'columnae Herculis', [the pillars of Hercules]. Transf., [a support, pillar of the state; a water-spout].

coma -ae f. [the hair of the head]. Transf. , [leaves; rays of light].

comedo -esse -edi -esum or -estum [to eat up , consume]; of property, [to waste, squander].

comicus -a -um [of comedy , comic]; esp. [represented in comedy]. M. as subst. [an actor in comedy or writer of comedy]. Adv. comice, [in the manner of comedy].

comitiatus -us m. [the assembly of the people in the comitia].

comitium -i n. [a place of assembly , esp. one in the forum at Rome]; plur. comitia, [the assembly of the Roman people for the election of magistrates, etc.]: hence [elections].

commeatus -us m. [free passage , going and coming]; milit., [leave of absence, furlough]; also (often pl.) [supply of provisions, food, forage].

commemorabilis -e [worthy of mention , memorable].

commendo -are [to commit to the care or protection of anyone]. Hence , in gen., [to commit; to recommend; to set off, render agreeable].

commensus partic. of commetior; q.v.

commentarium -i n. [a memorandum , notebook]; as the title of a book, [a memoir] (usually plur.); legal, [a brief].

commentarius -i m. [a memorandum , notebook]; as the title of a book, [a memoir] (usually plur.); legal, [a brief].

commercium -i n. [trade , commerce]; meton. [the right to trade, or an article of traffic, merchandise, or a place of trade, depot]. Hence in gen., [intercourse, communication].

commiseratio -onis f. [pity]; rhet. [the exciting of pity].

commiseror -ari dep. [to pity , bewail]; of a speaker, [to excite pity].

commissio -onis f. [a setting together]: hence [the start of games , contests, etc.].

committo -mittere -misi -missum (1) [to unite , connect, combine]; esp. [to bring together in a contest, to match]: hence [to compare]. (2) [to begin, set on foot, initiate]: with ut and the subj., [to bring it about that]; esp. of crimes, etc., [to commit, perpetrate], and of penalties, [to incur]. (3) [to entrust, commit], esp. with reflex. N. partic. as subst. commissum -i, [an undertaking; a crime, fault; a trust, secret].

commoditas -atis f. [proportion , fitness]; hence [a fit occasion], also [convenience, advantage]; of persons, [kindness].

commodus -a -um [to measure , in full, complete]; hence [proper, fit, appropriate]; of persons, character, etc., [friendly, obliging, pleasant]. N. as subst. commodum -i, [suitable time, opportunity, convenience; use, advantage, interest; remuneration; loan]. N. acc. as adv. commodum, [at the right time, opportunely; just then]. Adv. commode, [rightly, properly, fitly; pleasantly, comfortably, kindly].

commoveo -movere -movi -motum [to move violently , shake, disturb, carry about or away]; 'nummum', [to employ in commerce]; esp. of the mind or passions, [to excite, influence, upset]; of abstract things, [to start up, produce, cause]. Hence partic. commotus -a -um, [insecure, unsteady; excited, upset].

communis -e [shared , common, universal, public]; 'loca', [public places]; 'loci', [commonplaces]; of persons, [approachable, affable]. N. as subst. commune, [common property], esp. in plur.; [state, commonwealth]; 'in commune', [for the public good], also [in general]. Adv. communiter, [jointly, generally].

communitas -atis f.[community , fellowship; sense of fellowship, affability].

como comere compsi comptum [to put together , make tidy, arrange, adorn]; esp. of the hair. Hence partic. comptus -a -um, [formed, framed; adorned, neat].

comosus -a -um [hairy]; of plants , [leafy].

comparabilis -e [capable of comparison , comparable].

compascuus -a -um [of common pasturage].

comperendinatio -onis f. [a putting off to the next day but one].

comperendinatus -us m. [a putting off to the next day but one].

comperio -perire -peri -pertum [to find out , discover, gain certain information of]. Esp. used in perf. partic. compertus -a -um (1) [known, undoubted]. (2) of persons, [convicted].

competo -petere -petivi and -petii -petitum [to come together , to meet]. (1) [to agree, coincide in point of time]. (2) [to be equal to, match]; absol., [to be competent, capable].

compilatio -onis f. [a pillaging]; hence [a compilation of documents].

compilo -are [to bundle together]; hence [to pack up and take off , to plunder, rob].

compitalis -e [relating to or belonging to the crossroads]; 'Lares' , [the deities who presided over crossroads]. N. as subst. Compitalia -ium and -orum, [the festival in honor of these deities].

complector -plecti -plexus dep. [to embrace , surround, encompass]. Transf., [to hold fast, master; to attach oneself to, esteem]; of the mind, [to embrace, grasp, comprehend; to unite in oneself, to include].

compleo -plere -plevi -pletum [to fill up]; milit. , [to man, or to bring up to strength]; of a sum, [to make up]; of fate, etc., [to fulfill]; of a task, [to finish]. Hence partic. completus -a -um, [perfect, complete].

complexio -onis f. [connection , combination]; in rhetoric, [a summary or a period]; in logic, [the statement of a syllogism or a dilemma].

complexus -us m. of persons , [embrace, grasp], either in love or in combat; of things, [compass or connection].

compluvium -i n. [roofless space in the center of a Roman house].

compono -ponere -posui -positum (1) [to put together]; esp. of unlike persons or things , either [to match as opponents], or [to compare]. (2) [to make up a whole, compose]. (3) [to put in place, arrange, settle]; of enemies, [to reconcile]. Hence partic. compositus -a -um, [constructed, put together; arranged in order, settled]; hence [adapted] to a purpose. Adv. composite, [in an orderly way].

compos -potis [having control of , possessed of, sharing in].

compositio -onis f. [putting together]; of opponents , [matching; composing, compounding; orderly arrangement, settlement].

comprehendo -prehendere -prehendi -prehensum and comprendo -prendere -prendi prensum [to grasp; to take together , unite]; hence [to embrace, include; to take firmly, seize]; 'ignem', [to catch fire]; often of persons, [to capture, arrest]; of criminals, [to catch red-handed]. Transf., [to comprehend, perceive].

compressio -onis f. [an embrace; compression of style , conciseness].

concaedes -ium f. pl. [a barricade of trees].

concedo -cedere -cessi -cessum intransit. , [to retire, withdraw]; 'concedere vita', [to die]; hence [to yield, submit, give way to], with dat.: 'concedere naturae', [to die a natural death]; transit., [to yield, grant, give up]; of faults, [to pardon, overlook]; of actions, [to permit, allow].

concelebro -are [to visit often , or in large companies; to pursue an occupation eagerly; to celebrate a festivity]; also [to praise, extol] a person or thing.

conceptio -onis f. [conception , becoming pregnant; drawing up of legal formulae].

concido (1) -cidere -cidi [to fall down]. Transf. , [to sink, perish]; of winds, [to subside]; of persons, [to be ruined, fail], esp. at law.

conciliabulum -i n. [a place of assembly].

conciliatio -onis f. [a bringing together , uniting, conciliating, causing of good-will]; sometimes [inclination].

concilio -are [to bring together , unite, reconcile, win over]; hence of results, [to bring about, cause]. Hence partic. conciliatus -a -um, [won over, inclined, favorable].

concinnitas -atis f. [elegance , harmony], esp. of style.

concinnitudo -inis f. [elegance , harmony], esp. of style.

concinnus -a -um [well put together]; hence [pleasing , elegant, neat], esp. of style. Adv. concinne, [elegantly].

concino -cinere -cinui intransit. , [to sing in chorus, play together]; hence [to agree in saying] and in gen. [to agree]; transit., of songs, [to sing together]; of festivals, [to celebrate]; of the future, [to prophesy].

concipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum (1) [to take together , contain, hold]; of ideas, [to express in a certain form of words]. (2) [to take completely in, absorb]; of fluids, [to suck in]; of fire, [to catch]; of air, [to draw in]; often also [to conceive]. Transf., [to take in, grasp by the senses or intellect; to conceive, imagine]; of passions, [to begin to feel]; of action, [to devise], esp. in bad sense.

concisio -onis f. [the breaking up of a clause into divisions].

concitatio -onis f. [violent movement]. Hence [tumult , sedition]; also [disturbance of mind, passion].

concito -are [to move violently , stir up, excite]; 'equum calcaribus', [to spur to a gallop]; 'aciem', [to move forward the army]. Hence in gen., [to stir up, incite]; of results, [to cause, produce]. Hence partic. concitatus -a -um, [quick, rapid; excited, violent, passionate]. Adv. concitate, [excitedly].

conclamo -are (1) [to shout together or loudly]; with ut , [to demand loudly that]; with acc. of a dead person, [to bewail]. (2) [to call together].

conclusio -onis f. [a shutting , closing]; milit. [a blockade]. Transf., [a close, conclusion]; rhet., [the conclusion of a speech, peroration or a period]; in logic, [a conclusion, consequence].

concubius -a -um in the phrase 'concubia nocte' , [at the time of first sleep, at dead of night].

concursio -onis f. [running together , concourse]; rhet., [frequent repetition of a word].

concutio -cutere -cussi -cussum [to shake together , agitate, disturb].Hence, physically, [to shatter, impair]; of persons, [to shake the clothes of], and so [to examine]; mentally, [to alarm, trouble, excite].

condemno -are [to condemn]; of an accuser , [to urge or effect the condemnation of a person]; in gen., [to blame, disapprove].

condicio -onis f. [an arrangement , agreement]. Hence (1) [a condition, stipulation, provision; esp. conditions of marriage, marriage contract]. (2) [state, condition, place, circumstance].

condio -ire: of fruits etc. , [to pickle, preserve]; of corpses, [to embalm]; in gen., [to season, temper]. Hence partic. conditus -a -um, [seasoned, savory].

condo -dere -didi -ditum (1) [to build , found; form, establish]; of literary work, [to compose, write] a poem, etc., and also [to write of] a subject. (2) [to put up, put away safely, store, to hide, withdraw]; of corpses, [to bury]; of time, [to pass, dispose of].

condono -are [to give away , present, give up, sacrifice]; of debts, [to excuse]; of faults, [to overlook, forgive]; sometimes [to forgive an injury for the sake of a third party (dat.)].

conduco -ducere -duxi -ductum transit. , [to bring or lead together, collect, unite, connect]; as commercial term, [to hire], also [to contract for, farm]; intransit., (3rd person only), [to be of use, to profit, serve], (with dat.).

confarreatio -onis f. [a Roman form of marriage].

confarreo -are [to marry by the ceremony of confarreatio].

confercio -fercire -fertum [to press close together , compress, cram together]; usually in perf. partic. confertus -a -um, [compressed, dense]; of troops, [in close formation]; with abl., [stuffed with, full of]; adv. confertim, [compactly].

confero -ferre -tuli -latum (1) [to bring or put together , collect, concentrate]; of money, etc. [to contribute]; milit., [to bring into contact or collision]; 'pedem (cum pede)', [to fight foot to foot]; 'signa conferre', [to engage]; of speech and ideas, [to interchange, discuss]; of diverse things, [to compare]. (2) [to bring to] a particular place, sphere, task, etc.; 'se conferre', [to betake oneself, or to devote oneself]; in time, [to put off, postpone]; of responsibility, [to impute, attribute].

conficio -ficere -feci -fectum (1) [to finish , make ready, bring about, accomplish]; of arrangements, [to conclude, settle]; of time or space, [to complete, pass through]; of results, [to produce, cause]. (2) [to get together, obtain, win over]. (3) [to use up, exhaust, consume]; of food, [to chew, eat] and also [to digest]; of property, [to waste]; of living creatures, [to destroy, kill]; in gen., [to weaken, wear out], esp. of persons. Hence partic. conficiens -entis, [productive, efficient].

confirmatio -onis f. [a thorough strengthening]; of an institution , [a securing, making firm]; of a person,[consolation, encouragement, support]; of a fact or statement, [confirmation, verification].

confirmo -are [to make firm , strengthen, support]; 'se confirmare', [to recover strength]; polit. [to ratify]; of persons, [to strengthen in mind, encourage]; of assertions, either [to corroborate, establish] or [to affirm, state positively]. Hence partic. confirmatus -a -um, [encouraged, emboldened]; of things, [certain].

conflo -are [to blow up , blow into flame]; of metals, [to melt or forge]; of money, [to coin]. Transf., [to excite; to forge, fabricate, put together].

confluo -fluere -fluxi [to flow , stream or flock together]. Partic. confluens -entis, [flowing together]; m. sing. of pl. as subst. [the confluence of two rivers]; as a place-name Confluentes, f. pl. [Coblenz].

conformatio -onis f. [form , shape]; 'vocis', [expression]; 'verborum', [arrangement]; philosoph., [an idea]; rhet., [a figure of speech].

confugium -i n. [a place of refuge].

congeries -ei f. [a heap , mass, esp. of wood]; rhet., [accumulation].

congero -gerere -gessi -gestum [to bring together , collect, pile up, accumulate]; esp. [to build up]; in discourse, [to bring together, comprise]; of benefits, abuse, etc., [to heap upon] a person.

congestus -us m. [a heaping together]; of birds , [the building of nests]. Transf., [a heap, mass].

congiarium -i n. [a donation] (originally of wine , oil, etc.).

congrego -are [to collect into a flock or swarm]; of men , [to gather together]; with reflex., or in pass., [to swarm, assemble].

conicio -icere -ieci -iectum [to throw together; to cast lots]; mentally , [to put two and two together, conjecture, guess; to interpret dreams, etc.]; in gen., [to throw, hurl]; 'se conicere', [to betake oneself, flee]; of abstract things, [to bring up, bring in]; of money, [to throw away].

coniectura -ae f. [a guess , conjecture, inference; interpretation of dreams and omens, divination].

conitor -niti -nisus or -nixus dep. [to lean or press hard; to make a great effort , physical or mental]; transit., of offspring, [to bring forth with difficulty].

coniugalis -e [of marriage , conjugal].

coniugatio -onis f. [etymological connection of words].

coniugialis -e [of marriage , conjugal].

coniunctio -onis f. [uniting , joining together, connection]. grammat., [a connecting particle, conjunction]; of persons, [union, association, connection (esp. by blood or marriage)].

coniungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum [to join together , connect, unite]; 'amicitias', [to form]; esp. [to unite persons by marriage, friendship, alliance, etc.]. Hence partic. coniunctus -a -um, [connected, joined, agreeing, allied]; of place, with dat. [bordering on, near]; of time, [contemporary]; of persons, [connected] by blood or marriage or friendship. N. as subst., [an inherent property or quality]; rhet., [connection]. Adv. coniuncte, [conjointly, in connection; intimately, on friendly terms]; coniunctim, [conjointly, in common].

conlatio -onis f. [a bringing together]; 'signorum' , [a battle]; of money, [a contribution, collection]. Transf. [a comparison, simile, analogy].

conlega -ae m. [a colleague , partner in office]; in gen.[an associate].

conloco -are [to place , lay, set, arrange]; of time, money, etc. [to lay out, employ, spend]; of persons, [to settle, place]; of troops, [to billet, quarter]; of women, [to settle in marriage].

conluvies -ei f. [collection of impurities , filth]; of people, [scum, rabble].

conluvio -onis f. [collection of impurities , filth]; of people, [scum, rabble].

conquisitio -onis f. [search , collection]; of soldiers, [levying, conscription].

conquisitor -oris m. [a recruiting officer].

consaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum [to fence round , hedge in]; n. of partic. as subst. consaeptum -i, [an enclosure].

conscientia -ae f. [knowledge shared with others , "being in the know", joint knowledge; knowledge shared with oneself, i.e. consciousness, esp. of right and wrong, a good or a bad conscience].

conscio -ire [to be conscious of evil].

conscius -a -um [sharing knowledge with others , privy to a thing, cognizant of]; m. or f. as subst., [an accomplice, fellow-conspirator]; [sharing knowledge with oneself, i.e. conscious, esp. of right and wrong].

conscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum [to enter on a list , enroll]; of troops, [to levy]; 'patres conscripti' ('patres et conscripti'), [senators]; [to write, compose]; of physicians, [to prescribe; to write all over an object].

consecratio -onis f. [dedication , consecration]; of dead emperors, [apotheosis].

consecro -are [to consecrate]; sometimes [to dedicate to the gods below , to curse]; of persons, [to deify]; in gen., [to make holy or immortal].

consentio -sentire -sensi -sensum; of physical sensation [to feel together]; of thought or sentiment , [to agree, assent, resolve unanimously]; with acc. 'bellum', [to resolve upon war]; in bad sense, [to plot, conspire]; of things, [to agree, harmonize]. Hence partic. consentiens -entis, [harmonious].

consequor -sequi -secutus dep. (1) [to follow , go after]; in hostile sense, [to pursue; to follow in time, follow logically, result]. (2) [to follow right up, reach, obtain, catch, get]; of states and events, [to befall, happen to] a person; in speech or thought, [to understand, grasp]. Hence partic. consequens -entis, [appropriate, consequent]; n. as subst. [a logical consequence].

considero -are [to look at , regard carefully, contemplate]; mentally, [to consider, reflect upon]. Hence partic. consideratus -a -um; pass.,[well weighed, deliberate]; act. of persons, [cautious, circumspect]. Adv. considerate, [thoughtfully, carefully].

consido -sidere -sedi -sessum [to sit down , to settle]; esp. [to sit down in an assembly or court]; milit., [to take up one's position or encamp]. Transf., of things,[to settle, sink, subside; to be overcome or neglected]; of ideas, [to sink in]; of feelings, [to subside]

consisto -sistere -stiti -stitum [to take one's stand , place oneself; to stand still, stop; to be posted or to halt]. Transf., of things, [to fall to, come upon, rest on; to stop, stay; to stand firm]; with abl. etc., [to consist, be formed of].

consolor -ari dep.: of persons , [to console, comfort, encourage]; of things, [to alleviate, lighten].

consors -sortis act. , [sharing in, partaking of]; as subst., [brother or sister]; as adj., [brotherly, sisterly]; pass., [shared].

conspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum [to catch sight of , behold, perceive; to look at with attention, watch]; pass., conspici, [to attract notice, be gazed at]. Transf., [to see mentally, understand]. Hence partic. conspectus -a -um, [visible; striking, remarkable, conspicuous]. Gerundive conspiciendus -a -um, [worth looking at, notable].

conspicor -ari dep. [to catch sight of , perceive].

conspiro -are [to blow or breathe together]; of instruments , [to blow together, sound together]. Transf., [to agree, harmonize in opinion and feeling]; in bad sense, [to conspire]. Hence partic. conspiratus -a um, [sworn together, united by oath]; m. as subst., [a conspirator].

constituo -stituere -stitui -stitutum [to cause to stand , set up, place, establish, settle]; milit., [to post, station, arrange, bring to a halt; to settle people in homes or quarters; to found, set up buildings, etc.]. Transf., [to appoint a person to an office; to settle, fix upon an amount, time, etc.: to decide about a fact, decide that; to decide on a course of action, decide to]. Hence partic. constitutus -a -um, [arranged, settled]; n. as subst., [anything arranged, settled or agreed upon].

constitutio -onis f. [the act of settling; settled condition , disposition; a regulation, order, ordinance]; rhet., [the issue, point in dispute].

consto -stare -stiti -statum (1) [to stand together]; hence [to be composed , consist; to depend upon, rest upon; to correspond, be consistent (with dat.)]; with abl., [to cost]. (2) [to stand firm, stand still; to remain the same, be unaltered]; of resolves, [to be fixed, firm]; of evidence, facts, etc., [to be established, sure, well- known]; impers. constat, [it is agreed]; in gen., [to exist]. Hence partic. constans -antis, [steady, firm, unchanging, constant, consistent, resolute]; adv. constanter, [steadily, firmly].

consuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum transit. , [to accustom, habituate]; intransit., [to accustom oneself]; in perf., consuevi, [I am accustomed]; 'cum homine', [to cohabit with a person]. Hence partic. consuetus -a -um: of persons, [accustomed to]; of things, [accustomed, usual].

consuetudo -inis f. [custom , usage, habit]; of relations with persons, [intimacy, familiar acquaintance]; of lovers, [intrigue].

consul -sulis m. [a consul]; plur. , consules, [the consuls, the two chief magistrates at Rome under the Republic]; 'consul designatus', [consul elect]; 'pro consule', [an officer in the place of a consul, a proconsul, e.g. a governor of a province].

consularis -e (1) [relating to a consul , consular]. (2) [having been a consul]; m. as subst., [an ex-consul, or provincial governor of consular rank]. Adv. consulariter, [in a manner worthy of a consul].

consulatus -us m. [the office of consul , consulship].

consulo -sulere -sului -sultum (1) [to reflect , consider, consult]; with dat., [to look to the interests of]; as a result of deliberation, [to come to a conclusion, to take measures]; 'boni (or optimi) consulere', [to take in good part]. (2) [to ask the advice of, consult]. Hence partic. consultus -a -um: of things, [well considered, deliberated upon]; of persons, [experienced (with genit.)]. N. as subst. consultum -i, [the act of deliberation, reflection, consideration; the result of deliberation, a resolution, plan, decision; esp. a decree of the senate at Rome]. Abl. as adv. consulto, [deliberately, designedly]. Adv. consulte, [advisedly, after consideration].

consulto -are (1) [to consider maturely , weigh, ponder]; with dat., [to look to the interests of]. (2) [to consult, ask advice of].

consurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum [to rise up , stand up], esp. to speak, or as a mark of respect. Transf., of persons, [to be aroused to action]; of things, [to arise, break out].

contamino -are [to pollute , infect]; of authors, [to blend (and so to spoil) Greek plays].

contemno -temnere -tempsi -temptum [to think meanly of , despise, contemn]. Hence partic. contemptus -a -um, [despised; despicable, contemptible].

contendo -tendere -tendi -tentum [to strain , stretch, exert]; of missiles, [to shoot, cast]; intransit., [to strive, strain, exert oneself, hasten]; of statement, [to assert with confidence, maintain].In relation to another: transit., [to compare, contrast]; intransit., [to compete]. Hence partic. contentus -a -um, [strained, stretched, tense; eager, zealous]. Adv. contente, [eagerly, earnestly].

contero -terere -trivi -tritum [to rub away , grind, pound]; in gen., [to wear away, destroy, obliterate]; of time, [to consume, spend].

contignatio -onis f. [floor of planks].

contiguus -a -um [touching , contiguous, near]; with dat., [within reach of].

contingo -tingere -tigi -tactum transit. , [to touch, reach, grasp; to touch with something, smear or sprinkle with]; hence [to affect, infect] (esp. in perf. partic.); geograph. [to border on]; intransit., [to happen, befall], usually of good luck (with dat.).

contra Adv. , [opposite, over against, on the opposite side]; of equivalence, [in return, back]; of difference, [otherwise]; of opposition,[against]. Prep. with acc., [opposite to, over against; against, in opposition to].

contraho -trahere -traxi -tractum (1) [to draw together , collect, unite; to conclude or complete] any arrangement; in gen., [to cause, bring on, bring about]; 'aes alienum', [to contract debt]. (2) [to shorten, narrow, contract, reduce]; 'frontem', [to frown]; 'vela', [to furl one's sails]; of the spirits, [to depress]. Hence partic. contractus -a -um, [contracted, narrowed, straitened]; of persons, [retired, quiet].

contrecto -are [to touch , feel, handle]; of familiar handling, [to violate]; mentally, [to consider].

contremisco -tremiscere -tremui intransit. , [to tremble, quake]; transit., [to tremble before, be afraid of].

contribuo -tribuere -tribui -tributum [to brigade with , incorporate, unite]; of contributions, [to bring in].

contubernium -i n. Concrete , [a soldier's tent; the common dwelling of a male and female slave]. Abstract, [comradeship, companionship, intimacy; concubinage; junior staff duties].

contumelia -ae f. [outrage , physical violence]; of speech, [insult, affront].

conus -i m. [a cone; the apex of a helmet].

convello -vellere -velli -vulsum [to pluck up , pull away, wrench off]; milit., 'convellere signa', [to decamp]; in gen., [to weaken, overthrow, destroy].

convenio -venire -veni -ventum (1) [to meet]: intransit. ,[to come together, assemble]; legal, 'convenire in manum', of the wife, [to come into the power of her husband]; transit., [to visit, meet, call upon]. (2) [to be fit, be suitable, be congenial]; impers. 'convenit', [it is fitting]. (3) [to agree]; usually in pass. sense, [to be agreed upon]; impers., 'convenit', [it is agreed]. Hence partic. conveniens -entis, [agreeing, unanimous, concordant; fit, appropriate, suitable]; adv. convenienter, [agreeably, suitably]. N. of perf. partic. as subst., conventum -i, [an agreement, compact].

conventiculum -i n. [a coming together , assembly, association; a place of meeting].

conversio -onis f. [a turning round , alteration, or periodical return]; rhet., [rounding off of a period, or repetition of word at the end of a clause].

converso -are [to turn round often]; pass. , in middle sense, [to live, consort, have dealings].

converto -vertere -verti -versum (1) [to turn round , whirl round]; 'se convertere, [to revolve, to turn back]; milit., 'signa convertere', [to wheel round]; 'terga', or 'se', convertere. [to flee]. Transf., [to change, alter]; of books, [to translate]. (2) [to turn in any direction, direct]; 'conversus ad', [facing]. Transf., [to direct, devote] (esp. with reflex.; rarely intransit.); 'pecuniam publicam domum', [to embezzle].

convinco -vincere -vici -victum [to convict of a crime; to prove mistaken]; of things , esp. crimes or mistakes, [to prove anything conclusively, to demonstrate].

convivalis -e [of a feast].

convulsus -a -um partic. of convello; q.v.

cooptatio -onis f. [election of a colleague , co-optation]; 'censoria', [filling up of the senate by the censors].

coorior -oriri -ortus dep. [to arise , come forth together]; of things, [to appear, to break out]; of people, [to rise for insurrection or fight].

copia -ae f. [plenty , abundance] (of persons or things); milit., [supplies, provisions]; also [troops, forces] (esp. plur.). Transf., [means, opportunity]; with genit. of person, [access to].

copiosus -a -um [richly provided , wealthy; plentiful, abundant]; of speech, [copious, eloquent]. Adv. copiose, [abundantly, plentifully, copiously].

coquo coquere coxi coctum cook , prepare food; to burn, ripen; to digest]; mentally,[to think of, meditate, contrive] a thing; [to harass] a person.

cor cordis n. [the heart]; often as seat of emotions or thought , [heart, mind, judgment]; meton., [a person].

coram Adv. [personally , openly, face to face]. Prep. with abl., [in the presence of].

Corinthus -i f. [Corinth , a city of Greece].

Corioli -orum m. pl. [a town of the Volsci in Latium]; adj. Coriolanus -a -um.

Cornelius -a -um [name of a Roman gens , including the Scipios]. Adj. Cornelianus -a um.

corneus (1) -a -um [horny , made of horn; like horn, hard].

corneus (2) -a -um [of cornel tree; of cornel wood].

cornu -us n. [a horn]; fig. , [strength, courage; anything made of horn, esp. a bow, trumpet, lantern; anything resembling a horn esp. a hoof, beak, tip of a helmet, end of a stick or spar, end of a promontory, wing of an army].

Cornucopia -ae f. [the horn of Amalthea , symbol of plenty].

cornum -i n. [the cornel-cherry]; meton. , [a spear of cornel wood].

cornus -i (and -us) f. [the cornel tree]; hence [the wood of the cornel tree , a spear of cornel wood].

corollarium -i n. [a garland of flowers; a present , gratuity].

corona -ae f. [garland , chaplet, crown]; 'sub corona vendere', [to sell into slavery prisoners of war (wearing chaplets)]. Transf., [anything resembling a crown; a constellation; a circle of people, audience]; milit., [besiegers (or defenders) of a city].

coronarius -a -um [of a garland].

corporeus -a -um [of the body , bodily of flesh].

corpus -poris n. [body , substance, matter]; esp. [the body] of men and animals; [flesh, the trunk]; sometimes [a corpse]. Transf., [a person, 'a body'; the 'body politic']; in gen., [the main mass] of a thing.

corripio -ripere -ripui -reptum [to seize , snatch up]; 'pecuniam', [to steal]; 'viam', [to hasten on a journey]; 'se', [to hurry off]. Transf., of disease, etc., [to attack]; of the passions, [to overcome]; of persons, [to blame, rebuke, accuse, bring to trial]; in time, [to shorten]; hence, from partic., compar. adv. correptius, [more shortly].

corrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum (1) [to break up , annihilate, destroy]. (2) [to spoil, make worse, weaken]; of documents, [to falsify]; of characters, [to corrupt]; 'corrumpere pecunia', [to bribe]. Hence partic. corruptus -a -um, [spoilt, damaged, corrupt]; adv. corrupte, [corruptly, incorrectly].

Corsica -ae f. [the island of Corsica]; adj. Corsus and Corsicus -a -um.

cortex -ticis m. and f. [bark , rind, shell]; esp. [the bark of the cork tree, cork].

cortina -ae f. [a round kettle or cauldron]; esp. [the cauldron-shaped Delphic tripod]: 'cortina Phoebi' , [the oracle of Delphi].

corusco -are transit. , [to move quickly, swing, shake]; intransit., [to tremble, flutter]; of light, [to twinkle, flash].

coruscus -a -um [shaking , trembling]; of light, [twinkling, flashing].

Corybantes -ium m. pl. [the priests of Cybele].

corymbus -i m. [a bunch of flowers or fruit] , esp. [a cluster of ivy berries].

cosmicos -a -um [of the world]; m. as subst. [a citizen of the world].

cottana (cotona coctona , coctana) -orum, n. pl. [a kind of small fig].

crassus -a -um [thick , dense, solid]; 'aer', [misty, heavy]; of intellect, [dull or uneducated]. Adv. crasse, [roughly, rudely].

Crassus -i m. [name of a family in the gens Licinia]; q.v.

crastinus -a -um [of tomorrow]; n. as subst. [the morrow].

cratera -ae f. and crater -eris , m. [a bowl, esp. for mixing wine with water; the crater of a volcano; a constellation, the Bowl].

cratis -is [a wicker frame , hurdle, a harrow]; milit. [fascines]; 'favorum', [honeycomb]; 'spinae', [the joints of the backbone].

creber -bra -brum; of space [thick , crowded together, close, numerous]; with abl., [crowded with, full of]; of time, [repeated, numerous, frequent]; of persons, to signify repeated action, e.g. 'creber pulsat', [he beats frequently]. Adv. crebro, [repeatedly, often].

credibilis -e [credible , worthy of belief]; adv. credibiliter, [credibly].

credo -dere -didi -ditum [to trust]: with acc. and dat. , [to entrust, commit], esp. of secrets and money; n. of perf. partic. as subst., creditum, [a loan]; with dat., [to trust in, rely upon]; also with dat., [to believe, give credence to]; with acc., [to believe as a fact, to accept as true]; in gen., [to believe, think, be of the opinion].

creo -are [to make , create, produce; to elect to an office]; of parents, [to beget, bear].

crepitus -us m. [rattling , creaking, rustling, clattering]; 'digitorum', [snapping of the fingers].

crepo -are -ui -itum intransit. , [to creak, rattle, rustle, crackle]; 'digiti crepantis signa', [a snapping of the fingers]; transit., [to make resound; to chatter about].

cresco crescere crevi cretum (1) [to come into existence , spring forth, arise]; past partic. cretus, [sprung (from)]. (2) of what exists, [to grow, grow up, increase in size, height, etc.]; 'luna crescens', [waxing]; fig., [to increase in fame, power, etc.].

Creusa -ae f. [wife of Aeneas].

crimen -inis n. (1) [an accusation , charge]: 'esse in crimine', [to be accused]; meton., [an object of reproach]. (2) [fault, guilt, crime]; meton., [cause of crime].

criminor -ari dep.: with acc. of person , [to accuse, charge]; esp. [to calumniate]; with acc. of offence, [to complain of, bring up].

criminosus -a -um [reproachful , calumnious, slanderous]; adv. criminose, [by way of accusation, reproachfully].

crinalis -e [of or for the hair]; n. as subst. [a hair-band].

crinis -is m. [hair]; esp. in pl.; of a comet , [the tail].

crista -ae f. [the crest , plume]; of a cock, [the comb].

croceus -a -um [of saffron; saffron-colored , golden, yellow].

crocinus -a -um [of saffron , saffron-colored, yellow]; n. as subst., [saffron oil].

crocus -i m. and crocum -i , n. [the crocus; saffron, prepared from crocus]; hence [the color of saffron, yellow].

Croesus -i m. [a king of Lydia , famous for his wealth].

Croton -onis c. [a Greek town near the toe of Italy].

cruditas -atis f. [overloading of the stomach , indigestion].

crudus -a -um adj. (1) [bleeding]. (2) [uncooked , raw]; of material, [fresh, not prepared]; of fruit, [unripe]; in gen., [green, fresh, immature, untimely]; of food, [undigested]; of persons, [stuffed, dyspeptic]; of feeling, etc., [hard, cruel]; of the voice, [harsh].

crumena -ae f. [a pouch , purse; store of money, funds].

crus cruris n. [the shin , shinbone, leg]; of a bridge, [pier, support].

crux crucis f. [a cross]; hence [torment , trouble]; as a term of abuse, [gallows bird].

crystallinus -a -um [of crystal]; n. pl. as subst. , [crystal vases].

cubicularis -e [of a bedchamber].

cubicularius -a -um [of a bedchamber]; m. as subst. [a chamberservant].

cubile -is n. [bed]; esp. [marriage-bed]; of animals , [lair, den, nest]; of bees, [hives]; in gen., [seat, resting place].

cubito -are [to lie down often].

cubo -are -ui -itum [to lie down , recline], esp. at table or in bed; [to be ill in bed]; 'cubitum ire', [to go to bed]; of things, [to lie]; partic. cubans, [sloping].

cudo -ere [to beat , pound, thresh]; of metals, [to forge, stamp, coin].

cuias -atis [of what country].

cuicuimodi [of whatever kind].

cuiuscemodi [of whatever kind].

cuiusdammodi [of a certain kind].

cuiusmodi [of what kind?].

cuiusquemodi [of every kind].

culmen -inis n. [top , summit; the ridge of a roof; a stalk].

culpa -ae f. [fault , blame]; esp. [the fault of unchastity]; meton., [a cause of error or sin].

cultor -oris m. [a cultivator , planter, husbandman]; with genit., [an inhabitant, occupier] of a place; [a friend, supporter] of a person; [a worshipper] of gods.

cultura -ae f. [tilling , culture, cultivation, husbandry]; 'animi', [mental culture cultivation]; 'potentis amici', [courting of].

Cumae -arum f. pl. [a city of Campania]; adj. Cumanus and Cumaeus -a -um.

cumque (cumque quomque) , adverb, usually found added to a relative, with the force of -ever, -sover.

cunae -arum f. pl. [cradle]; of young birds , [nest].

cuneus -i m. [a wedge; troops in wedge formation; any triangular figure]; often of [the wedge-shaped compartments into which the seats of a theater were divided].

cuniculosus -a -um [full of rabbits (or caverns)].

cupido -inis f. and poet. m. , [longing, desire]. Esp. [desire for power, ambition, avarice]; [physical desire, love]. Personified, Cupido -inis, m. [Cupid, god of love]; plur. Cupidines, [Cupids]; adj. Cupidineus -a -um.

cupresseus -a -um [made of cypress wood].

cupressus -i (-us) f. [the cypress; a casket of cypress wood].

cura -ae f. [care]; (1) [care taken , carefulness, pains, attention, minding of things or persons]; of business, [management, administration]; meton., [an object of care, or a guardian, caretaker]. (2) [care felt, anxiety, worry, disquiet].

curatio -onis f. [care , attention; esp. medical attention, healing, curing]; of business, [management, administration]; 'frumenti', [commission to buy corn]; 'agraria', [commission to divide land].

Cures -ium f. [a town of the Sabines]; adj. Curensis -e.

Curetes -um m. [ancient inhabitants of Crete]; adj. Curetis -idis= [Cretan].

curia -ae f. (1) [a curia , a division of the Roman patricians]; meton., [the meeting place of a curia]. (2) [the meeting place of the senate, senate-house]; at Athens, [the Areopagus].

curiatus -a -um [relating to curiae]; 'comitia curiata' , [the original assembly of the Roman people].

curio -onis m. [the priest of a curia; a herald , crier].

curo -are [to care for , pay attention to, trouble about]; with gerundive, [to see to] a thing being done; of business, [to manage, administer]; physically, [to minister to, cure, rest]; of business, [to provide or procure money]; 'curare Romae', [to be in charge at Rome]. Hence partic. curatus -a -um, [cared for; showing care]. Compar. adv. curatius, [more carefully].

curro currere cucurri cursum [to run , hasten]; esp. [to run in a race]; at sea, [to sail]; of time, [to pass].

curulis -e [relating to a chariot]; 'equi' , [horses provided for the Circus]; 'curulis (sella)', [the curule chair], official seat of consuls, praetors, and curule aediles.

cuspis -idis f. [point , esp. of a spear]; hence [a spear, lance; a trident, a spit].

custodia -ae f. [watching , guarding, custody, care]; milit., [keeping guard, watch]; of prisoners, [custody, safekeeping]; 'custodia libera', [house-arrest]. Transf., [persons guarding, guards, sentinels; the station of the guard, post, prison; persons guarded, prisoners].

custodio -ire [to guard , watch, keep, take care of; to keep in sight, observe; to keep in prison, hold captive].

cyathus -i m. [a ladle for filling goblets with wine]; as measure of capacity = one twelth of a sextarius.

cyclas -adis f. [a female robe of state].

Cyclas -adis f. , plur., Cyclades, [a group of islands in the Aegean Sea].

Cynicus -a -um [Cynic , of the Cynic school].

Cynthus -i m. [a mountain in Delos , birthplace of Apollo and Diana]; hence adj. as subst., m. Cynthius -i, [Apollo], f. Cynthia -ae, [Diana].

Cyprus or Cypros -i f. [the island of Cyprus]; adj. Cyprius -a -um , [Cyprian]; f. as subst. [Venus].

Cyrene -es and Cyrenae -arum f. [a city of northeastern Africa]; adj. Cyrenaeus and Cyrenaicus -a -um , [Cyrenaic]; m. pl. as subst., [the Cyrenaic philosophers].

Daedalus -i m. [mythical Athenian , builder of the Cretan labyrinth]; adj. Daedaleus and Daedalius -a -um.

Dalmatae (Delmatae) -arum m. pl. [the Dalmatians , inhabitants of Dalmatia].

Damascus -i f. [Damascus , capital of Syria]; adj. Damascenus -a -um, [Damascene]; 'pruna', [damsons].

damno -are [to cause loss or injury to]; at law , [to condemn, sentence, punish] (offence usually genit., punishment genit. or abl.); 'damnari inter sicarios', [to be condemned as an assassin]; in gen., [to condemn, disapprove of]; of deities, 'damnari voti' or 'voto', [to grant a person's wish, and compel him to discharge his vow]; also [to assign, devote, make over].

Danae -es f. [mother of Perseus].

Danaus -i m. [son of Belus , who left Egypt for Argos]; adj. Danaus -a -um, [Argive, Greek]; m. pl. Danai -orum, [the Greeks]; Danaides -um, f. [the fifty daughters of Danaus].

dano = old form of do; q.v.

Daphne -es f. [daughter of Peneus , changed into a laurel tree].

daphnon -onis m. [a grove of laurels].

Dardanus -i m. [son of Jupiter , mythical ancestor of the royal family of Troy]; adj. Dardanus and Dardanius -a -um, [Trojan]; subst. Dardania -ae, f. = Troy; Dardanides -ae, m. [a male descendant of Dardanus]; Dardanis -idis, f. [a Trojan woman].

Dareus -i m. [name of several Persian kings].

datio -onis f. [a giving]; legal , [right of alienation].

Daunus -i m. [a mythical king of Apulia , ancestor of Turnus]; adj. Daunius -a -um, [Daunian]; f. subst. Daunias -adis, [Apulia].

de prep. with abl. (1) in space , [down from, away from]. Transf., [coming from] an origin; [taken from] a class or stock, [made from] a material, [changed from] a previous state; of information, [from] a source. (2) in time, [following from, after; in the course of, during]. (3) [about] a subject; [on account of] a cause; [according to] a standard.

debeo -ere -ui -itum [to owe]. Lit. of money , etc.: n. of perf. partic. pass. as subst., debitum, -i, [a debt]. Transf., [to be indebted to] somebody for anything; with infin., [to be due to do a thing, be morally bound to or be bound by logic or necessity or law to; to have to pay because of fate, to be destined to give].

decanto -are transit. [to sing or say repeatedly]; intransit. [to leave off singing].

decedo -cedere -cessi -cessum (1) [to move away , withdraw, retire]; milit., [to march away]. Transf., [to retire, give up]; with dat., [to yield to, retire in favor of], esp. [to depart from life, to die]. (2) of things, [to retire, abate, cease]; 'sol decedens', [setting]. (3) [to go astray, deviate].

December -bris adj. [of December] (originally the tenth Roman month); December (mensis) , [December].

decemprimi -orum m. pl. [the ten chief men in the senate of a municipium or colonia].

decemvir -i m.; usually plur. , [a board of ten commissioners at Rome for various purposes].

decemviratus -us m. [the office of decemvir].

decennis -e [of ten years].

decerno -cernere -crevi -cretum [to decide , determine; to settle that] a thing is so; and of action, [to decide to do or give] a thing; of a body, [to decide, decree]; as a member of a body, [to move, propose]; of combatants, [to settle by fighting]. Hence partic. decretus -a -um; m. as subst. decretum -i, [a resolve, decree]; philosoph. [doctrine, principle].

decerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum [to pluck off , pluck away]. Transf., [to gather; to derive; to take away].

decessio -onis f. [a withdrawing , departure]; esp. [of a governor retiring from his province]. Transf., [deduction, diminution].

decessor -oris m. [one who retires from an office , a predecessor].

decessus -us m. [withdrawal , departure]. Esp. [the retirement of an official; death]; of water, [ebb].

decido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum [to cut down , cut off; to cut short, to settle, to arrange].

decipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum [to catch]; hence [to cheat , deceive, beguile (esp. of time)].

Decius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; adj. Decianus -a -um.

declamatorius -a -um [of declamation , rhetorical].

declaro -are [to make clear , explain, reveal, declare]; of appointments, [to proclaim] a person as chosen.

decolor -oris [off-color , pale].

decoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum [to boil thoroughly; to boil down , boil away]; of metals, [to melt away]; of property, [to waste]; commerc., [to ruin oneself, become bankrupt]. Hence partic. decoctus -a -um, [boiled down]; of style, [insipid]; f. as subst. [a cold drink].

decuma (decima) -ae f. [a tenth part tithe] (as an offering , tax, or largesse).

decumanus (decimanus) -a -um [of the tenth].(1) [relating to the provincial tax of a tenth]; m. as subst. [the farmer of such a tax]. (2) [belonging to the tenth legion]; m. pl. as subst. [its members]. (3) [belonging to the tenth cohort].

decuria -ae f. [a body of ten men; a class , division, esp. of jurors]; [a party, club].

decurio (1) -are [to divide into bodies of ten , or into classes of ten].

decurio (2) -onis m. [head of a body of ten]; milit. [company commander in the cavalry]; polit. , [a senator of a municipium or colony].

decurro -currere -cucurri or -curri -cursum [to run down , hasten down]; milit. [to move down or to manoeuvre]. Transf., [to run in a race]; transit. [to run through, traverse] a set course; [to have recourse to, take refuge in]; of ships, [to sail downstream or to land]; of water, [to run down].

decursus -us m. [a running down]; milit. [a manoeuvre , a charge, attack]. Transf., [the completion of a course]; rhet., [rhythmical movement].

decus -oris n. [distinction , honor, glory, grace; moral dignity, virtue]; of persons, [pride, glory]; plur., decora, [distinguished acts].

decutio -cutere -cussi -cussum [to shake down , shake off, knock off].

dediticius -a -um [relating to surrender]; m. plur. , dediticii, [subjects of Rome without rights].

dedo dedere -didi -ditum [to give up , surrender] esp. of the conquered. Transf., [to give up to, dedicate, devote]. Hence partic. deditus -a -um, [devoted to, addicted to]; 'dedita opera', [intentionally].

dedoleo -dolere -dolui [to make an end of grieving].

deduco -ducere -duxi -ductum [to lead or bring down]; in time , from the past, [to trace downwards] to the present; in amount, [to reduce]; from an amount, [to subtract]; in gen., [to lead or draw away; to lead forth colonists, to found a colony; to escort a person to a place]; of persons and things,[to bring out of one state, opinion, etc. into another]; in weaving, [to draw threads]; hence, [to draw out, spin out] in speech or writing.

deductio -onis f. [a leading down; a reduction; a leading away of colonists , etc.].

defectus (1) -a -um part. of deficio; q.v.

defectus (2) -us m. [a failing , disappearance]; esp. [a failing of light, eclipse].

defendo -fendere -fendi -fensum (1) [to repel , repulse, ward off, drive away] (2) [to defend, protect]; esp. [to defend in court]; in argument, [to maintain a proposition or statement]; [to sustain a part].

defensio -onis f. (2) [a warding off]. (3) [defence].

defensor -oris m. (1) [one who wards off or averts]. (2) [a defender , protector] esp. in court.

defero -ferre -tuli -latum [to bring down , carry down]; in gen., [to bring or carry away], esp. to a particular place; 'deferre rationes', [to hand in accounts]; fig., [to offer, hand over, refer]; of news, [to communicate, report], esp. to authority; legal, 'deferre nomen', [to inform against a person, indict]; 'deferre crimen', [to bring a charge].

defervesco -fervescere -fervi or -ferbui [to cease boiling]; of passion , [to cease to rage].

deficio -ficere -feci -fectum intransit. [to do less than one might , to fail]; hence, [to desert, rebel, revolt]; of things, [to fail, run short]; of sun or moon, [to become eclipsed]; of fire, [to go out]; of water, [to ebb]; of strength, etc., [to fail, become weak]; 'amimo deficere', [to lose heart]; transit. [to abandon, leave, fail]; rarely pass. defici, [to be failed]. Hence partic. defectus -a -um, [feeble], esp. because of age.

defigo -figere -fixi -fixum [to fasten down , fix in]; in gen., [to secure, plant firmly]; of sight or thought, [to concentrate, fix upon];of persons, [to fix, make motionless], with astonishment, etc.: partic. defixus -a -um, [astounded]; of enchantment, [to bind by a spell].

definio -ire [to limit , bound, mark out; to set limits to a thing, confine; to set as a limit, appoint, assign]; [to interpret] ideas or words in terms of each other, [to understand] one thing by another; in logic, [to define]. Hence partic. definitus -a -um, [definite, distinct]; adv. definite.

deflagro -are [to be burnt down , destroyed by fire]; in gen., [to be destroyed]; of passions, [to cease burning, abate, cool]. Partic. in pass. sense, deflagratus -a -um, [burnt down, destroyed].

defluo -fluere -fluxi (1) [to flow down , slip down, descend]; abstr., [to come down], esp. of the gifts of heaven. (2) [to flow away, disappear, be lost].

deformo -are (1) [to form , fashion; to delineate]. (2) [to put out of shape, disfigure; to disgrace, dishonor].

defraudo (defrudo) -are [to deceive , cheat]; 'genium suum', [to deprive oneself of pleasure].

defringo -fringere -fregi -fractum [to break down , break off].

degener -eris [fallen away from one's origin , unworthy of one's race, degenerate, unworthy, ignoble].

degenero -are intransit. [to become unlike one's kind , to fall off, go bad, degenerate]; transit. [to cause to degenerate, or disgrace by degeneracy].

degero -ere [to carry off].

degusto -are [to take a taste from , taste]; of fire, [to lick]; of a weapon, [to graze]; in gen., [to try, make a trial of, sound].

deicio -icere -ieci -iectum [to throw , cast, hurl down]; with reflex., [to rush down]; of upright things, [to throw to the ground, fell]; of persons, [to kill, bring down]. In gen., [to fling away or aside]; naut., deici, [to be thrown off course]; milit., [to dislodge];[to eject, dispossess; to shift] a person from an opinion, attitude; [to disappoint]. Hence partic. deiectus -a -um, [low-lying; dispirited, dejected].

deinde and abbrev. dein: of space ,[from that place]; of time, [thereafter, thereupon, then, afterwards]; in enumerations, [next, and then].

Deiotarus -i m. [a king of Galatia , defended by Cicero].

delabor -labi -lapsus dep. [to glide down , fall down, sink]; of liquids, [to flow down]. Transf., [to sink to, come down to] circumstances, etc.; [to proceed from, be derived from] an origin; [to fall unawares] among people.

delegatio -onis f. [assignment of a debt].

delibero -are [to weigh carefully , consider, consult about; to ask advice], esp. of an oracle; as a result of deliberation, [resolve]. Hence partic. deliberatus -a -um, [resolved, determined].

delibro -are [to peel the bark off].

delicatus -a -um [soft , tender]; in bad sense, of things, [luxurious]; of persons, [spoilt, effeminate]; of tastes, [fastidious, dainty, nice]. Adv. delicate, [luxuriously].

delingo -ere [to lick off , lick up].

Delos -i f. [a small island in the Aegean Sea , birthplace of Apollo and Diana]; adj. Deliacus and Delius -a -um, [of Delos]; as subst. Delius -i, m. = Apollo; Delia -ae, f. = Diana.

Delphi -orum m. pl. [a town in Phocis , famous for its oracle of Apollo]; adj. Delphicus -a -um.

demens -entis [out of one's mind , insane, senseless]; adv. dementer.

demereo -ere and demereor -eri dep. [to earn thoroughly , to deserve well] of a person, [to oblige].

demeto -metere -messui -messum [to mow , reap, cut down or off].

deminuo -minuere -minui -minutum [to take away from , diminish, lessen]; 'capite se deminuere', [to suffer a loss of civil rights].

deminutio -onis f. [lessening , diminution]; 'sui', [loss of prestige]; 'capitis', [loss of civil rights]; [right of alienation].

demitto -mittere -misi -missum [to send down , lower, put down]; 'tunica demissa', [hanging loosely]; 'demissi capilli', [growing long]; milit. [to lead down]; naut., [to lower gear, or bring a vessel downstream or to land]. Transf., [to sink, bury, plunge]; of spirits, [to lower]. Hence partic. demissus -a -um, [hanging down];of dress and hair, [long, loose]; of places, [low-lying]. Transf., [feeble, weak; unassuming, modest; downcast, dispirited]. Adv. demisse, [low, near the ground]. Transf., [modestly, humbly, meanly].

Democritus -i m. [a philosopher of Abdera (c. 460-370 B.C.)]. Hence adj. Democriticus -a -um.

demonstrativus -a -um [demonstrative]; rhet. , of oratory, [concerned with praise and censure].

demorior -mori -mortuus dep. [to die , die off]; with acc. of person, [to die for love of].

demugitus -a -um [filled with the noise of lowing].

demum of time , [at length, at last]; in enumerations, [finally, in short]; 'id demum', [that and that alone].

denoto -are [to mark out for another , designate precisely; to take note of].

dens dentis m. [a tooth]. Transf. , things resembling a tooth, e.g., [a mattock or sickle]; abstr., of anything biting, sharp, destructive.

densus -a -um [thick , close, dense]; in time, [frequent]; in degree, [intense, vehement]; in style, of work or author, [condensed]. Adv. dense, [densely]; of time, [frequently].

dentalia -ium n. pl. [the share-beam of a plow].

dentio -ire [to cut teeth]; of teeth , [to grow].

denubo -nubere -nupsi -nuptum [to be married off , to marry (of the woman), esp. beneath her].

depasco -pascere -pavi -pastum and depascor -pasci dep. [to feed off]; in gen. , [to eat up, consume, reduce].

depello -pellere -puli -pulsum [to drive down , or away, expel, remove]; milit., [to dislodge]; naut., [to drive off course]; in gen., [to drive away, avert]; of persons, [to dissuade].

deperdo -perdere -perdidi -perditum [to lose , waste, destroy]; esp. of the effects of love.

depilo -are [to strip of hair or feathers].

depono -ponere -posui -positum (1) [to lay down , put down]; esp. [to lay as wager or prize]. (2) for safekeeping, [to put down, deposit; to commit, entrust]. (3) [to lay aside, have done with]. Hence partic. depositus -a -um.(1)[laid out; dying, despaired of, dead]. (2) [entrusted]; n. as subst. [a deposit].

deporto -are [to carry down , carry off, take away; to bring home; to banish for life (with loss of rights and property)].

deprecator -oris m. (1) [one that begs off , an intercessor]. (2) [one that pleads for].

deprehendo and deprendo -endere -endi -ensum [to seize upon , catch hold of]; esp. [to surprise, catch, detect] a person in a crime or fault; [to discover, detect, observe] a thing.

deprimo -primere -pressi -pressum [to press down , depress]; esp. [to plant deep in the ground, dig deep]; of ships, [to sink]. Hence partic. depressus -a -um, [low-lying].

depudet -pudere -puduit [ceases to be ashamed , loses all sense of shame].

deputo -are (1) [to prune , cut off]. (2) [to count, estimate].

deridiculus -a -um [very laughable]; n. as subst. [ridicule]; 'esse deridiculo' , [to be an object of ridicule].

derigo -rigere -rexi -rectum [to set straight , direct]; of placing (also in form dirigo), [to order, dispose]; milit. [to draw up]; Transf., [to direct, aim, guide] abstract things.

derivatio -onis f. [turning away or diversion of water].

deruptus -a -um [broken off]; hence [precipitous , steep]; n. pl. as subst. [precipices].

descendo -scendere -scendi -scensum [to climb down , come down, descend]; milit., [to march down]; of things, [to sink, pierce, penetrate]; of mountains, [to slope down]; of the voice, [to sink]. Transf., of persons, [to lower oneself, stoop]; of things, [to sink in, penetrate].

deseco -secare -secui -sectum [to hew off , cut off].

desiderium -i n. [desire or longing , grief for the absence or loss of] a person or thing; in gen., [a desire or request].

desidero -are [to long for what is absent or lost , to wish for; to miss, find a lack of]; milit., [to lose].

designatio -onis f. [marking out , designation; appointment to an office].

desisto -sistere -stiti -stitum [to stand away]; from a person , [to withdraw]; from action, etc., [to desist, leave off, cease].

despectus (2) -us m. [a looking down , downward view; an object of contempt].

despero -are intransit. , [to be without hope, despair]; transit., [to despair of, give up]. Adv. from pres. partic. desperanter, [despairingly, hopelessly]. Perf. partic. desperatus -a -um; in pass. sense, [despaired of]; in middle sense, [desperate].

despumo -are (1) [to skim off]. Transf. [to digest]. (2) [to drop foam].

desquamo -are [to take off the scales , to scale].

destino -are [to make fast , fix down; to fix, determine, settle, appoint]; with infin., [to resolve to do]; of persons, [to appoint] to an office; of things, [to fix upon, intend to buy]. Hence partic. destinatus -a -um, [fixed, determined]; n. as subst., [an objective or intention]; '(ex) destinato', [intentionally].

detergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum (1) [to wipe off , clear away, brush off]. (2) [to cleanse by wiping].

determino -are [to bound , fix the limits of, determine].

deterreo -terrere -terrui -territum [to frighten off , deter, discourage].

detestatio -onis f. (1) [a cursing , execration].(2) [a warding off, averting].

detestor -ari dep. (1) [to pray against; to pray for deliverance from] a person or thing , or [to curse, execrate]. (2) of the gods' action, [to avert, remove].

detorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum (1) [to turn away , bend aside]. (2) [to twist out of shape, distort].

detractio -onis f. [drawing off , withdrawal, taking away]; rhet., [ellipsis].

detraho -trahere -traxi -tractum (1) [to draw down , drag down; to lower, humiliate]. (2) [to draw off, drag away, remove]; numerically, [to subtract]; in speech, [to detract from a person, disparage, slander].

detrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum [to push down , thrust down]; milit., [to dislodge]; legal, [to dispossess, eject]. Transf., of persons, [to force, compel]; of functions, [to put off, postpone].

detrunco -are [to lop or cut off; to mutilate].

Deucalion -onis m. [son of Prometheus , saved in an ark from a great flood, with his wife Pyrrha].

deunx -uncis m. [eleven-twelfths of a unit].

deuro -urere -ussi -ustum [to burn down]; of cold , [to destroy, nip].

devexus -a -um [moving downwards , descending, sinking]; of position, [sloping down, shelving, steep]; of tendency, [inclining to].

devius -a -um [off the beaten track , out of the way, solitary, retired] in mind, [erroneous, unreasonable].

devoro -are [to swallow , devour, seize upon]; of words, [to articulate badly, mispronounce]; of property, [to consume, waste]; of disagreeable things, [to swallow, accept, put up with].

dexter -tera -terum or -tra -trum; compar. dexterior -ius , superl. dextimus -a -um; [right, on the right hand, on the right side].Transf. [dexterous, skillful; propitious, favorable, opportune]. F. as subst. dextera or dextra, [the right hand];'(a) dextra', [on the right]; esp. [the right hand as a pledge of faith]; sometimes, in gen., [the hand]. Adv. dextere or dextre, compar. dexterius; [dexterously, skillfully].

Dia -ae f. [mother of Mercury].

diaeta -ae f. (1) [a way of living prescribed by a physician , regimen, diet]. (2) [a living room].

dialecticus -a -um [of discussion , dialectical]; m. as subst., dialecticus -i, [a dialectician, logician]; f. dialectica -ae, and dialectice -es, [the art of dialectic, logic]; n. pl. dialectica -orum, [dialectical discussion]; adv. dialectice, [dialectically].

dialis -e [relating to Jupiter]; '(flamen) dialis' , [the priest of Jupiter].

Diana -ae f. [the virgin goddess of the moon and hunting]; adj. Dianius -a -um , [belonging to Diana].

diaria -orum n. pl. [a day's allowance of food or pay].

dibaphus -a -um [double-dyed]; as f. subst. dibaphus -i , [the purple-striped robe of the higher magistrates in Rome].

dicax -acis [ready of speech; witty , satirical, sarcastic].

dicis (genit.); 'dicis causa , dicis gratia', [for form's sake, for the sake of appearances].

dico (2) dicere dixi dictum [to indicate; to appoint]; most commonly , [to say, speak, tell, mention]; in pass. with infin., [to be said to]; impersonally, dicitur, [it is said that];of ideas,[to express, put into words]; 'ius', [to administer law, give rulings]; of persons or things, [to mention, speak of, tell of, relate; to name, call; to mean, refer to]. N. of partic. as subst. dictum -i, [a word, saying, speech; a witty saying, a bon mot; a prediction; an order, command].

dicrotum -i n. [a vessel with two banks of oars].

dictatura -ae f. [the office of dictator , dictatorship].

dictito -are [to say often , reiterate, assert repeatedly]; 'dictitare causas', [to plead frequently].

dicto -are [to say often; to say over , dictate a thing to be written]; hence [to get written down].

Dido -us f. [the founder of Carthage] , also called Elisa or Elissa.

dies -ei m. or f. [daytime , day; a day, period of twenty-four hours]; 'diem ex die', [from day to day]; 'in dies', [daily], esp. of a continuing process of change; 'in diem vivere', [to live for the day]; meton., [the business or events of the day]; in gen., [time]. Esp. [a particular day, fixed date; a historic day; day of death; anniversary, esp. birthday].

differo differre distuli dilatum Transit. , [to carry in different directions, spread abroad, scatter; to spread news; to harass, disturb, discredit a person]; in time, [to delay, postpone business, to put off persons]. Intrans. [to differ, be different]; 'nihil differt', [there is no difference].

difficilis -e [difficult]; of character , [hard to deal with, morose, obstinate]. Adv. difficiliter and difficulter, [with difficulty].

difficultas -atis f. [difficulty , need, trouble, distress]; of character, [obstinacy, moroseness].

diffidentia -ae f. [want of confidence , distrust, despair].

diffusilis -e [capable of spreading , elastic].

digitulus -i m. [a little finger; the touch of a finger].

dignitas -atis f. [worth , worthiness, merit]. Transf., [dignified appearance or style; dignified position, esteem, honor]; esp. [official rank]; plur. dignitates, [persons of rank].

dignus -a -um (1) [worthy , deserving]; esp. of persons, usually with abl. or genit. (2) of things, [worth having, deserved, suitable, fitting]; 'dignum est', foll. by infin. [it is proper]. Adv. digne.

dilabor -labi -lapsus dep. [to glide apart]; of solids , [to fall to pieces, fall down, melt, dissolve]; of liquids, gases, etc., [to flow apart, run away]; of persons in groups, [to break up, slip away]; in gen., [to break up, vanish]; of time, [to go by].

dilatio -onis f. [putting off , postponing].

dilectus (2) -us m.: in gen. , [choosing, choice, selection]; milit., [a levy, recruiting of troops, conscription]; meton., [troops] so raised.

diluculum -i n. [the break of day , dawn].

diluo -luere -lui -lutum (1) [to wash apart , separate, dissolve]; of troubles, [to remove, resolve]; of puzzles, [to clear up]. (2) [to dilute, temper; to weaken, lessen, impair].

dimitto -mittere -misi -missum (1) [to send forth , send in different directions]; without object, [to send (word) round]. (2) [to send away, let go, let fall]; milit., [to disband or to detach]; of a gathering, [to break up, dismiss]; of places, [to give up, leave]; of abstr. things, [to give up, renounce, abandon].

dioecetes -ae m. [a revenue official or treasurer].

Diomedes -is m. (1) [a hero of the Trojan War , son of Tydeus]. (2) [king of the Bistones in Thrace].

Dione -es and Diona -ae , f. (1) [the mother of Venus]; (2) [Venus]. Adj. Dionaeus -a -um.

Dionysus (-os) -i m. [the Greek name of Bacchus]. Hence Dionysia -orum , n. pl. [the feast of Dionysus].

diploma -atis m. (1) [a letter of introduction given to travellers]. (2) [a government document conferring privileges].

diribeo -ere -itum [to sort tablets when taken out of the ballot box].

diribitio -onis f. [sorting of voting tablets].

diribitor -oris m. [the officer who sorted voting tablets].

dirimo -imere -emi -emptum [to part , separate, divide]. Transf., [to break off, interrupt, stop] temporarily or permanently.

diripio -ripere -ripui -reptum [to snatch apart , tear to pieces]; of spoil, [to divide]. hence, milit., [to pillage, lay waste; to tear away].

dirumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum [to break apart or to pieces , shatter]; of friendships, etc., [to sever, break up]; in pass., dirumpi, [to burst with envy, grief, anger].

Dis Ditis m. [a name of Pluto , god of the Lower World].

discedo -cedere -cessi -cessum (1) [to go asunder , part, separate]. (2) [to depart, go away]; milit., [to march away]; 'discedere ab signis', [to break the ranks]; 'ab armis', [to lay down arms; to come out of a contest, to come off]; in gen., [to depart, pass away; to deviate, swerve, digress]; polit., of the senate, 'in sententiam discedere', [to support a resolution].

discessus -us m. (1) [parting , separation]. (2) [departure, going away]; milit., [marching off; banishment].

discingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum [to take off the girdle , ungird]. Partic. discinctus -a -um, [ungirt; at ease, careless, dissolute].

disciplina -ae f. [instruction , teaching; training, education]; esp. [military training]. Transf., [results of training, discipline, ordered way of life; that which is taught, learning, body of knowledge, science; a rhetorical or philosophical school or system].

discolor -oris [of different colors]; in gen. , [different].

discordiosus -a -um [full of discord , mutinous].

disicio disicere disieci disiectum [to throw in different directions , cast asunder]; of buildings, etc., [to throw down]; of military formations, [to break up, disperse]; of abstract things, [to break up, frustrate].

disiungo (diiungo) -iungere -iunxi -iunctum [to unbind , loosen, separate, remove, distinguish]. Hence partic. disiunctus -a -um, [separated, apart, distant, remote]; of speech, [disconnected]; in logic, [disjunctive]. Compar. adv. disiunctius, [rather in disjunctive fashion].

disparo -are [to separate , part, divide]; n. of partic. as subst., disparatum -i, rhet. [the contradictory proposition].

dispensatio -onis f. [weighing out; management , administration; the office of a treasurer].

displiceo -ere [to displease]; 'displicere sibi'[to be dissatisfied with oneself , be out of spirits].

dissaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum [to hedge off , separate, divide]; n. of perf. partic. as subst. dissaeptum -i, [barrier, partition].

dissentio -sentire -sensi -sensum [to be of different feeling or opinion , to be opposed, not to agree].

disserenat -are impers. , [it is clearing up all round], of the weather.

dissero (2) -serere -serui -sertum [to set in order]; hence [to examine treat of , discuss].

disserto -are [to treat of , discuss, argue].

dissideo -sidere -sedi -sessum [to sit apart , be distant, disagree, be opposed]; of clothes, [to sit unevenly].

dissimulatio -onis f. [a concealing , dissembling], esp. [of irony].

dissolutio -onis f. [breaking up , dissolution, destruction] ; 'naturae', [death]; 'navigii', [shipwreck]; 'criminum', [refutation]; rhet., [want of connection].

dissolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum [to loosen , break up, undo, destroy]; 'glaciem', [to melt]; 'animam', [to die]; 'criminationem', [to refute]; of debts, [to pay, discharge]; [to release] a person from difficulties, [to unravel, explain] a difficulty. Hence partic. dissolutus -a -um, [loose]; 'navigium', [leaky]; of style, [disconnected]; of character, [wanting in energy, lax; profligate, dissolute]. Adv. dissolute, [disconnectedly, loosely; carelessly, negligently, without energy].

distichon distichi n. [a poem of two lines , distich].

distinctio -onis f. [a distinction , difference; the finding of a difference, the act of distinguishing, discriminating]; rhet. [a division in a speech; a pause, stop].

distinguo -stinguere -stinxi -stinctum [to mark off , distinguish, divide]. Transf., [to separate, distinguish]; gram., [to punctuate]; [to set off, decorate, adorn]. Hence partic. distinctus -a -um,[separate, distinct; set off, diversified, adorned]. Adv. distincte, [clearly, distinctly].

distorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum [to twist apart , distort; to torture]. Hence partic. distortus -a -um, [distorted, deformed]; of speech, [perverse].

distraho -trahere -traxi -tractum [to pull apart or pull to pieces]; of associations , [to break up, dissolve]; of persons, [to draw away, estrange], also [to distract]; of property, [to sell up]; gram., [to leave a hiatus in a verse].

dithyrambus -i m. [a dithyrambic poem](originally in honor of Bacchus).

dius -a -um [divine , god-like]; hence [fine, noble]; also (apparently) [out of doors, in the open air].

diuturnus -a -um [lasting a long time , of long duration].

diverto (divorto) -vertere -verti -versum [to turn different ways]; hence [to differ]. Hence partic. diversus -a -um , [turned away, turned in different directions]; of places, [out of the way, remote]; of character, [fluctuating, irresolute]; in gen., [different, unlike, opposed, hostile]. Adv. diverse [differently, diversely].

divido -videre -visi -visum (1) [to divide up , separate into parts]; esp. [to divide among persons, distribute, allot]; polit., 'sententiam', [to divide a resolution into parts so that each part can be voted on]; in music, [to accompany]. (2) [to separate from one another, to distinguish; to set off, adorn]. Hence partic. divisus -a -um, [separate].

divinatio -onis f. [the gift of prophecy , divination]; legal, [the selection of the prosecutor].

divinitas -atis f. [divine nature , divinity; the power of prophecy or divination; excellence, surpassing merit].

divinitus [divinely , by divine influence; by inspiration, by means of divination; admirably, nobly].

divinus -a -um (1) [belonging or relating to a deity , divine]; 'res divina', [the service of the gods]; n. as subst. [a sacrifice]; in plur. [divine things or attributes]. (2) [divinely inspired, prophetic]; 'vates', [a poet]; m. as subst., [a seer]. (3) [noble, admirable]. Adv. divine, [divinely, by divine power; by divine inspiration, prophetically; admirably, excellently].

divisor -oris m. [a divider; a distributor] ,esp. of lands; [a hired bribery agent].

divitiae -arum f. pl. [riches , wealth; ornaments, rich offerings]; of soil, [richness].

divortium -i n. [divergence , separation]; of things, [a boundary, parting of the ways]; or persons, [separation, divorce].

divus -a -um as adj. , [divine or deified]; as subst., m. [a god] and f. [a goddess] (often as epithet of dead and deified emperors); 'sub divo'(neuter), [in the open air].

do dare dedi datum (1) [to offer , give, grant, bestow, lend; to hand over, commit, devote]; of letters, [to give for dispatch]; 'vela dare ventis', [to sail]; 'poenas', [to pay a penalty]; 'verba', [to give words only, i.e., to cheat]; of news, [to tell, communicate]. (2) [to cause, bring about, put].

doceo docere docui doctum [to teach , instruct] (with acc. of person and/or thing); with clause, [to inform that or how]; 'docere fabulam', [to teach a play to the actors, to bring out, exhibit]. Hence partic. doctus -a -um, [taught; learned, instructed, well-informed; experienced, clever, shrewd]. Adv. docte, [learnedly, skillfully; cleverly, shrewdly].

dodrans -antis m. [three fourths]; as a measure of length , [nine inches].

doleo dolere dolui [to suffer pain] , physical or mental, [to be pained, to grieve]; of things, [to cause pain]. Hence partic. dolens, [painful];adv. dolenter,[painfully, sorrowfully].

dolor -oris m. [pain] , physical or mental; esp. [disappointment, resentment]. Transf., [cause of sorrow]; rhet., [pathos].

domesticus -a -um (1) [belonging to house or family , domestic]; m. as subst. esp. plur., [members of one's family]. (2) [native]; 'crudelitas', [towards citizens]; 'bellum', [civil war].

domicilium -i n. [place of residence , dwelling].

domina -ae f. [mistress of a household; wife , mistress, lady]; of abstr. things, [ruler, controller].

dominus -i m. [master of a house , lord, master]. Transf., [husband or lover; a master, owner, possessor; employer; ruler, lord, controller].

Domitianus -i m. [son of Vespasian , brother of Titus, emperor from 81 to 96 A.D.].

Domitius -a -um [name of a plebeian gens in Rome].

donarium -i n. (1) [a temple , shrine, altar]. (2) [a votive offering].

donum -i n. [a gift , present]; 'dono dare', [to give as a present]; esp. [a votive offering].

Dores -um m. [the Dorians , one of the Hellenic tribes]; adj. Doricus and Dorius -a -um, [Dorian, Greek]. F. Doris -idis: as adj., [Dorian]; as subst., [the country of the Dorians; the wife of Nereus]; meton., [the sea].

dormito -are [to be sleepy , begin to sleep, nod; to dream, be lazy]; of a lamp, 'iam dormitante lucerna', [just going out].

dorsum -i n. [the back] , of men, animals or things; 'immane dorsum mari summo', [a reef]; [a mountain ridge].

draco -onis m. [a kind of snake , dragon].

Drepanum -i n. and Drepana -orum , plur.[a town on the west coast of Sicily].

Drusus -i m. [a cognomen of the gens Livia]; hence adj. Drusianus and Drusinus -a -um , [of Drusus]; subst. Drusilla -ae, f. [the name of several females of the gens Livia].

duceni -ae -a [a group of two hundred , or two hundred each].

duco ducere duxi ductum (1) [to draw; to draw along or away]; hence [to shape anything long , to construct]; 'carmina', [to make verses]; of time either [to spend or to delay, protract]. Transf., [to charm, influence, mislead; to derive]. (2) [to draw in]; 'aera spiritu', [to inhale]; 'pocula', [to quaff]. (3) [to lead]; in marriage, [to marry a wife]; milit., either [to lead on the march], or [to command].(4) [to calculate, reckon; to esteem, consider].

ductus -us m. (1) [drawing , drawing off]. (2) [shaping, shape]; 'oris', [the lineaments of the face]; 'muri', [line of a wall]. (3) [leading, command, leadership].

Duilius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

dulcis -e [sweet]; 'unda' , [fresh water]; in gen., [pleasant, delightful, agreeable]; of persons, [friendly, dear]. N. acc. dulce and adv. dulciter, [sweetly].

duoetvicesimani -orum m. [soldiers of the 22nd legion].

duplico -are [to double]; of words , [to repeat]; also [to form compound words]. Transf., [to bend double]; in gen., [to lengthen, increase].

dupondius -i m. [a coin of two asses].

duresco durescere durui [to grow hard]; of water , [to freeze].

durus -a -um [hard , harsh; tough, strong, enduring]; in demeanour or tastes, [rough, rude, uncouth]; in character, [hard, austere],sometimes [brazen, shameless]; of things, [hard, awkward, difficult, adverse]. Adv. dure and duriter, [hardly, hardily; roughly, rudely; harshly, unpleasantly, severely].

duumvir and duovir -viri m. usually pl. , [a pair of magistrates, a commission of two].

ea adv. = abl. of is; q.v.

ebriositas -atis f. [love of drink , drunkenness].

ebullio -ire [to boil up; to boast of].

ebur -oris n. [ivory]. Transf. (1) [things made of ivory]. (2) [the elephant].

eburneolus -a -um [made of ivory].

eburneus -a -um [made of ivory , white as ivory].

eburnus -a -um [made of ivory , white as ivory].

ecclesia -ae f. [an assembly of the (Greek) people].

Ecetra -ae f. [capital of the Volsci].

eculeus -i m. [a little horse , colt; a rack, instrument of torture].

edico -dicere -dixi -dictum [to announce , declare]; esp. of a magistrate, [to decree, ordain by proclamation]. Hence partic. as subst. edictum -i, [a decree, edict].

editio -onis f. [the publishing of a book; a statement]; 'editio tribuum' , [a proposal by a plaintiff for the choice of a jury].

edo (2) -dere -didi -ditum [to put forth , give out];'animam', [to breathe one's last, die]; 'clamorem', [to utter]. Esp. (1) [to bring into the world, to bring forth, give birth to]; of things, [to produce]. (2) [to make known]: of writings, [to publish]; of ideas and information, [to divulge, spread]; officially, [to proclaim]; as legal t.t., [to fix, determine, nominate]. (3) [to bring about, cause, produce]; of magistrates, [to provide games for the people]. Hence partic. editus -a -um, [raised, high, lofty]; n. as subst. [a high place, eminence].

Edoni -orum [a Thracian people , famed for the worship of Bacchus]; adj. Edonus -a -um, and Edonis -nidis, f. [Thracian].

edormio -ire [to have one's sleep out]; transit. , [to sleep off].

edormisco -ere [to sleep off].

educo (1) -ducere -duxi -ductum (1) [to draw out , lead out]; of time, [to spend]; milit., [to march troops out]; legal, [to bring before a court of law]; naut., [to take a ship out of port]. (2) [to raise up] (of persons and buildings); 'in astra', [to praise sky-high]. (3) [to bring up, rear].

effatum -i n. from partic. of effor; q.v.

effectus (1) -a -um partic. of efficio; q.v.

effero (2) (ecfero) efferre extuli elatum (1) [to carry out , bring out]; 'efferre signa', [to march out]. Esp. [to carry to the grave, bury]; pass. efferri, [to be borne out, buried]; of the earth, [to bring forth, bear]; [to utter, express, publish] words or ideas. (2) [to carry off or away]; pass. efferri, [to be carried away] by feelings. (3) [to raise up, lift up; to praise, extol]; 'efferri' or 'se efferre', [to pride oneself, be puffed up]. (3) [to endure to the end]. Hence partic. elatus -a -um, [elevated, exalted]; adv. elate, [loftily].

effervesco -fervescere -fervi [to boil up , effervesce]; of an orator, [to be passionate].

efficio -ficere -feci -fectum [to do , produce, effect, make]; of results, [to bring about, cause] (esp. with ut and the subj.); of numbers, [to make up, amount to]; philosoph. [to prove, show]; of appointments and changes, [to make]. Hence partic. efficiens -entis, [effective]; 'causa', [efficient cause]; adv. efficienter, [efficiently, powerfully].

effio (ecf-) -fieri old pass. of efficio; q.v.

effluo (ecfluo) -fluere -fluxi [to flow out]. Transf. (1) [to vanish , drop off].(2) [to pass out of mind, be forgotten]. (3) [to come to light, become known].

effugio -fugere -fugi -fugitum intransit. , [to flee, fly away, escape, get off]; transit., [to escape from, avoid, shun].

effugium -i n. [a flying away , flight; means or opportunity of flight].

effundo (ecf-) -fundere -fudi -fusum [to pour out , pour forth, shed]; of solids, [to fling out, empty out]; with violence, [to throw off, fling down]; esp. of horses, [to throw their riders]; of weapons, [to discharge]; 'spiritum extremum', [to die]; 'se effundere', and 'effundi', [to stream forth, pour forth], also [to give oneself up to, to indulge in]; of sounds, [to utter]; with ideas of generosity, waste, etc., [to pour out freely, squander]; 'habenas', [to slacken]. Hence partic. effusus -a -um, [poured out]; hence [widespread, extensive; extravagant, wasteful; unrestrained]; adv. effuse.

effusio -onis f. [a pouring forth; violent movement; extravagance , prodigality; exuberance of spirits].

egelidus -a -um [with the chill off , lukewarm, tepid].

egenus -a -um [needy , destitute]; with genit. or abl., [in need of].

egeo -ere -ui [to want , be in need]; with genit. or abl. [to be in want of, to be without, not to have]; also [to desire, wish for, want]. Hence partic. egens -entis, [needy, destitute]; with genit., [in need of].

Egeria -ae f. [a nymph , instructress of Numa Pompilius].

egero -gerere -gessi -gestum [to carry out or off].

egestas -atis f. [poverty , indigence, need]; with genit., [want of].

egredior -gredi -gressus dep.: intransit. , [to go out, pass out]; milit., [to march out]; naut.,'egredi ex navi', [to disembark];in speech, [to digress]; sometimes [to go up, ascend]; transit., [to go out of, pass beyond, overstep, pass].

egregius -a -um [not of the common herd; excellent , extraordinary, distinguished]; adv. egregie.

egressus -us m. [going out , departure]; esp. [landing from a ship, disembarkation]. Transf., [a passage out; the mouth of a river]; in speech, [digression].

eicio -icere -ieci iectum [to throw out , cast out]; 'vocem', [to utter]; 'armum', [to dislocate]; 'se eicere', [to rush out]; naut., [to bring to shore]; pass., [to be cast ashore, stranded]; 'eiectus', [a ship-wrecked person]. Transf. [to drive out, expel, dispossess];'domo', [to divorce]; 'ex patria', [to banish]; of feelings, [to cast out, put aside].

eiusdemmodi [of the same kind].

eiusmodi [of this kind , such, so].

Elea or Velia -ae f. [town in Lucania , birthplace of Parmenides and Zeno, the founders of the Eleatic school of philosophy]; subst. Eleates -ae, m. [Zeno]; adj. Eleaticus -a -um, [Eleatic].

electrum -i n. [amber]; plur. [amber balls; an alloy of gold and silver , resembling amber].

elementum -i n. [an element , first principle]; in plur., [physical elements; letters of the alphabet, beginnings, the elements of any science or art].

elimino -are [to carry out of doors]; 'dicta' , [to blab].

elimo -are [to file off , polish, elaborate, perfect].

Elissa (Elisa) -ae f. [another name of Dido].

elogium -i n. [a short saying , maxim; an inscription]; esp. on a gravestone, [epitaph]; [a clause in a will, codicil; a record of a case].

eluctor -ari dep: intransit. , [to struggle out]; transit., [to struggle out of, surmount a difficulty].

eludo -ludere -lusi -lusum intransit. , [to finish playing], esp. of the waves of the sea; transit., [to parry a blow; to ward off, evade; to beat on opponent in play; to delude, mock].

Elysium -i n. [Elysium , the abode of the blessed]; adj. Elysius -a -um; m. plur. as subst. [the Elysian fields].

Emathia -ae f. [a district of Macedonia]; adj. Emathius -a -um , and f. Emathis -idis, [Macedonian]; Emathides, [the Muses].

emax -acis [fond of buying].

emereo -ere -ui -itum and emereor -eri -itus dep.[to obtain by service , earn completely; to deserve well of a person]; milit., [to earn pay, to serve, finish one's time]. Hence partic. emeritus -a -um: m. as subst., [a soldier that has served his time, a veteran]; as adj., [worn out, finished with].

emetior -iri -mensus dep. [to measure out]. Transf. , [to pass over, traverse a distance]; partic. emensus -a -um, in pass. sense, [traversed]; [to pass through, live through a period of time].

eminentia -ae f. [standing out , prominence; the lights of a picture].

emitto -mittere -misi -missum [to send forth , send out]. Hence (1) [to dispatch, send on a chosen course]; of books, [to publish]. (2) [to let go, let loose, free, let slip].

emolumentum -i n. [result of effort; gain , advantage].

emorior -mori -mortuus dep. [to die off , perish].

Empedocles -is m. [a poet and philosopher of Agrigentum , of the fifth century B.C.]; adj. Empedocleus -a -um; n. pl. as subst. [the doctrine of Empedocles].

emporium -i n. [a place of trade , market].

eneco (enico) -necare -necui -nectum [to kill off; to wear out , exhaust, torture].

Ennius -i m. Q. (239-169 B.C) [the 'father of Roman poetry'].

enthymema -atis n. [a thought , line of thought, argument]; esp. [a kind of syllogism].

enubo -nubere -nupsi -nuptum of a woman , [to marry out of her rank].

enuntio -are [to tell , divulge, announce, express in words]; in logic, [to state a proposition]; also [to pronounce clearly]. N. of partic. as subst. enuntiatum -i, [a proposition].

enuptio -onis f: 'gentis' , [a woman's marrying out of her gens].

eo (2). (1) old dat. , [thither, to that point]; of degree, [so far, to such a pitch]. (2) locative, [there]; esp. with 'loci' (partitive genit.).(3) abl., [for that, on that account].

Epicurus -i m. [an Athenian philosopher , founder of the Epicurean school, (342-270 B.C.)]; adj. and subst. Epicureus -a -um, [Epicurean, an Epicurean].

Epirus -i f. [a region in northwest Greece]; adj. Epirensis -e , [of Epirus]; subst. Epirotes -ae, m. [an Epirote].

epistula (or epistola) -ae f. [a written communication , letter, epistle]; ' ab epistulis ', [to do with correspondence], of secretaries. Transf., [sending of letters, post].

epulo -onis m. [feaster]; 'Tresviri (later Septemviri) epulones' , [a college of priests who had charge of sacrificial feasts].

equidem [indeed , truly, for my part]; concessive, [of course, certainly, admittedly].

equito -are [to ride on horseback]; of winds , [to rush].

erado -radere -rasi -rasum [to scratch out; to destroy , get rid of].

Erato f. [the Muse of lyric and love poetry].

Erebus -i m. [a god of the lower world]; hence [the lower world]. Adj. Erebeus -a -um.

Erechtheus -ei m. [a mythical king of Athens]; adj. Erechtheus -a -um , m. [Athenian]; subst. Erechthidae -arum, m. pl. [the Athenians].

erga prep. with acc. , [towards], esp. of personal relations; more generally, [about].

ergastulum -i n. [a workhouse for debtors or slaves]; in plur. [the inmates of an ergastulum].

ergo prep. , preceded by genit., [because of, on account of]; adv., [therefore, accordingly, then].

Erichthonius -i m. [a mythical king of Athens]; also [a mythical king of Troy]; adj. Erichthonius -a -um , [Athenian or Trojan].

erigo -rigere -rexi -rectum [to set up , place upright, erect, raise]; milit. [to march a body of soldiers up a height]. Transf. [to arouse, excite; encourage, cheer]. Hence partic. erectus -a -um, [raised, upright, erect; high, elevated, proud; alert, anxious, intent, with minds on the stretch; resolute, cheerful].

erilis -e [of a master or mistress].

Erinys -yos f. [one of the Furies]; plur. Erinyes , [the Furies]. Transf., [scourge, curse].

erro (1) -are [to wander , stray, rove]; transit. [to wander over]. Transf., [to waver, to err, be mistaken]. N. of partic. as subst., erratum -i, [a fault, error], technically or morally.

error -oris m. [wandering about]. Transf. , [wavering, uncertainty, error, mistake; source of error, deception].

erubesco -rubescere -rubui [to grow red , blush]; with infinit., [to blush to]; with acc. [to blush for, to respect]; gerundive erubescendus -a -um, [of which one should be ashamed].

eruo -ruere -rui -rutum [to tear out , dig up]; of buildings, [to raze, demolish].

Eryx -rycis or Erycus -i m. [a mountain and city on the west coast of Sicily , with a famous temple of Venus].Adj. Erycinus -a -um; f. as subst. [Venus].

Esquiliae -arum f. [one of the seven hills of Rome , the Esquiline]. Hence adj. Esquilius and Esquilinus -a -um, [Esquiline]; f. as subst. Esquilina, -ae, [the Esquiline gate].

Euan or Euhan m. [a name of Bacchus].

euans or euhans -antis [shouting Euan] , of Bacchanals.

Euius or Euhius -i m. [a name of Bacchus].

euoe euhoe , interj., [shout of the Bacchantes].

Europa -ae f. and Europe -es , f.: myth., [daughter of Agenor, whom Jupiter, in the form of a bull, carried off to Crete]; geograph., [the continent of Europe]. Adj. Europaeus -a -um, [belonging to Europa or to Europe].

Euterpe -es f. [Muse of harmony].

Euxinus -a -um [an epithet of the Black Sea].

evado -vadere -vasi -vasum Intransit. , [to go out, go forth]; esp. [to climb up or out; to escape, get off]. Transit., [to go out or through, pass over; to climb up; to escape].

eveho -vehere -vexi -vectum [to carry out or up]; with reflex. or pass. , of ships, [to sail away]; of riders, [to ride away].

evenio -venire -veni -ventum [to come out]. Transf. , [to turn out, result; to befall, happen, occur].Hence n. of partic. as subst. eventum -i, [issue, consequence, result; event, occurrence, experience].

evidentia -ae f. [distinctness of language].

evinco -vincere -vici -victum [to conquer entirely , utterly subdue]; in gen. [to prevail over, get through, get over]; of results, [to bring about]; of conculusions, [to prove irresistibly].

evoco -are [to call out]; esp. [to summon the spirits of the dead , or a deity]; milit. and polit. [to call out, call up, summon]. Transf., [to draw out, draw on; to call forth, produce]. M. pl. of partic. as subst., evocati -orum, [veteran soldiers recalled to the colors].

evolutio -onis f. [the unrolling and reading of a book].

evolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum (1) [to roll out , roll forth]; of news, evolvi, [to spread]. (2) [to unroll, roll open]; esp. [to unroll a book to read it]. Transf.[to extricate, disentangle, detach; to unravel, disclose, explain].

ex or e prep. with abl. (1) in space , [from or out of]; 'ex equo pugnare', [to fight on horseback] (operating from it); 'ex adverso', [opposite]. (2) in time, [since]; also [immediately after]; 'aliud ex alio', [one thing after another].(3) in other relations: to denote origin, [from, away from, out of, of]; 'ex animo', [heartily]; 'ex industria', [on purpose]; 'unus ex', [one of]; 'pocula ex auro', [gold cups]; to denote cause or occasion, [from, on account of, by reason of]; 'e vulnere mori', [to die of a wound]; to denote correspondence, [in accordance with]; 'ex re et ex tempore', [according to time and circumstance]; to denote advantage, e.g. 'e republica', [for the benefit of the state]; in gen. [in regard to]; 'ex parte', [in part].

exactio -onis f. [driving out , expulsion; demanding, exacting], esp. [collecting of debts, tribute, etc.]; in gen., [management, direction].

exactor -oris m. [one who drives out; one who demands or exacts] , esp. [a collector of taxes]; in gen., [superintendent, overseer].

examen -inis n. (1) [a swarm; a throng , crowd, shoal]. (2) [the tongue of a balance; testing, consideration].

exanimatio -onis f. [want of breath] , esp. from fright.

exanimo -are (1) [to take away the breath of , to wind, stun, weaken]. (2) [to deprive of life, to kill].

exardesco -ardescere -arsi -arsum [to blaze up , to become hot, or inflamed]; of disturbances, [to break out].

exarmo -are [to disarm , deprive of arms].

exceptio -onis f. [exception , restriction, limitation]; esp. [an exception by the defendant to the plaintiff's statement of a case].

excerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum [to pick out; to gather out , choose; to put on one side, separate]. N. of partic. as subst. excerptum -i, [an extract].

excido (1) -cidere -cidi [to fall out , fall away, be lost]; of words, [to slip out unawares, escape]; of ideas, [to pass from memory or thought, be forgotten].

excieo and excio -cire -civi and -cii -citum [to call out , arouse]; esp. [to awaken from sleep or to summon for help]; in gen., of persons, [to excite, arouse]; of feelings, [to call forth, excite, produce]; of material things, [to stir, shake].

excipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum (1) [to take out]; hence , [to rescue; to except]. (2)[to take up, catch; to greet, welcome] a person;[to pick up] news or ideas by listening; of events, [to come upon] people. (3) passively, [to receive, to take over from, follow, succeed, come later].

excito -are [to arouse , rouse up]; of things, [to provoke, call forth, cause]; of persons, [to console, cheer, inspire]; of buildings, [to raise, erect]; of fire, [to kindle, inflame]. Hence partic. excitatus -a -um, [lively, vigorous, loud].

excludo -cludere -clusi -clusum [to shut out , exclude, keep away];of things, [to knock out]; of birds, [to hatch].

excretus -a -um partic. of excerno , or of excresco.

excubo -bare -bui -bitum [to lie or sleep out of doors]; milit. , [to keep watch; to be watchful, vigilant].

excudo -cudere -cudi -cusum [to strike out , beat out]; esp. [to hammer, forge]; of birds, [to hatch]. Transf. of bees, [to mold]; of writers, [to compose].

excurro -currere -cucurri and -curri -cursum [to run out , hasten forth]; milit., [to attack, make a sortie]; with acc., [to run over]; fig., [to run out, move freely]; of places, [to run out, to project].

excursio -onis f. [running out; movement forwards]; fig. , [outset of a speech]; milit., [attack, assault, sally].

excutio -cutere -cussi -cussum (1) [to shake out]; esp. , [to shake out] clothes to find anything hidden; hence [to search, examine] a person; fig. [to investigate]. (2) [to strike off, throw out, knock away, shake off].

exemplum -i n. (1) [a sample , example]; 'exempli causa (or gratia)', [for instance]; [general character, manner, fashion] (as shown by examples); [an example to be followed, model; a precedent; an example of what may happen, warning, object lesson]; hence [a punishment intended to deter]. (2) [a copy, transcript].

exemptus -a -um partic. of eximo; q.v.

exeo -ire -ii (-ivi) -itum intransit. , [to go out, go away, go forth; to pass from] state to state; [to get out, to become known]; of time, [to come to an end, pass away]; transit., [to pass over]; also [to ward off].

exerceo -ere -ui -itum [to keep at work , exercise, train, cultivate]; of abstr. things, [to employ, exploit]; of feelings, arts, and processes, [to practice, exercise]; of the mind, [to train]; hence [to overwork, harass, trouble]. Hence partic. exercitus -a -um, [trained, schooled; harassed; severe, vexatious].

exercitus (1) -a -um partic. of exerceo; q.v.

exercitus (2) -us m. [training; a trained body of soldiers , army]; esp. [the infantry]; poet. in gen., [crowd, swarm].

exhalo -are transit. , [to exhale, breathe out]; intransit., of things, [to steam]; of persons, [to expire].

exhibeo -hibere -hibui -hibitum [to produce , show, display, exhibit, present; to offer, allow; to produce by making, to cause].

exhortativus -a -um [of exhortation].

exiguus -a -um [small , little, scanty]; of quantity, in size, [small]; in number, [scanty]; in time, [short]; of quality, [meager]. N. as subst. exiguum -i, [small extent]. Adv. exigue, [sparingly, scantily, scarcely].

exilis -e [thin , slender, meager]; in possessions, [poor]; with genit., [without]; of style, [dry, dreary]. Adv. exiliter, [thinly, poorly, meagerly].

eximo -imere -emi -emptum [to take out , take away], esp. off a list or out of a group; [to free, release; to take away, remove] an abstr. thing; of time, [to waste].

existimatio -onis f. [the opinion that a man has , judgement; the opinion that others have of a man], esp. morally, [reputation, good name, honor, character]; in finance, [credit].

exitium -i n. [going out or away]; hence [destruction , ruin]; also [a cause of destruction].

exitus -us m. [going out , going forth; a means of going out, exit; end, finish; issue, result].

exoculo -are [to deprive of eyes].

exordium -i n. [the warp of a web]; in gen. , [a beginning]; esp. [the beginning of a speech].

exorsus (1) -a -um partic. of exordior; q.v.

exostra -ae f. [a theatrical machine , revealing the inside of a house to the spectators].

expedio -ire -ivi and -ii -itum [to free from a snare , disengage, disentangle, set free; to get things ready for action]; fig., [to release, clear, set free, set straight]; in speech, [to clear up a point, explain]; 'res expedit', or impers. 'expedit', [it is expedient, useful, advantageous]. Hence partic. expeditus -a -um, [unshackled, unimpeded]; milit., [lightly equipped]; in gen., [free, ready]; n. as subst. [clear ground]; of abstr. things, [clear, settled, ready]. Adv. expedite, [freely, easily].

experrectus -a -um partic. of espergiscor; q.v.

expers -pertis [having no part in , not sharing in; wanting in, destitute of].

expeto -ere -ii and -ivi -itum transit. [to desire , strive after, make for]; of things due, [to demand, require];with infin.[to seek to do];intransit. [to fall upon].

expio -are [to propitiate , appease] an offending or threatening power; [to purify what is defiled]; [to atone for an offence].

expleo -plere -plevi -pletum [to fill , fill up; to complete] a required amount; [to make good] losses, etc.; in quality, [to complete, perfect]; of time, [to complete, finish]; of duties, [to fulfil, discharge]; of wants, [to satisfy, quench, appease]. Hence partic. expletus -a -um, [perfect, complete].

explico -are -avi -atum and -ui -itum [to unfold , unroll, disentangle]; in gen., [to spread out, extend, expand]; milit., [to extend ranks, deploy]. Transf., [to disentangle, put in order]; of a debt, [to pay off]; [to explain, expound, interpret; to set free]. Hence partic. explicatus -a -um, [ordered, arranged; made plain, clear]; also explicitus -a -um, [straightforward, easy];adv. explicate, [plainly].

explodo (-plaudo) -plodere -plosi -plosum [to hiss an actor off the stage]; in gen. , [to scare off, reject].

expono -ponere -posui -positum (1) [to put outside , cast out]; [to expose a child]; naut. [to land, disembark]. (2) [to put on view, display, show]; in words, [to set forth, explain, exhibit]. Hence partic. expositus (expostus) -a -um, [exposed, open, accessible]; of persons, [affable]; in bad sense, [vulgar].

exposco -poscere -poposci [to implore , entreat earnestly]; esp. [to demand the surrender of] a person.

expostulo -are (1) [to demand earnestly] , esp. [to demand the surrender of a person]. (2) [to make a claim or complaint, to expostulate].

exprimo -primere -pressi -pressum (1) [to press out , force out; to extort]. (2) [to mold or form] one thing in imitation of another; hence [to copy, express, portray, represent]; esp., [to express in words, describe; to translate; to articulate]. (3) [to raise up].

expugnatio -onis f. [the taking of a place by storm].

exsecutio -onis f. [performance , accomplishment]; 'exsecutio Syriae', [administration]; of speech, [a discussion].

exsibilo -are [to hiss out]; esp. [to hiss an actor off the stage].

exsicco -are [to dry thoroughly; to drain dry , to empty by drinking]. Hence partic. exsiccatus -a -um, of style, [dry, jejune].

exsilium -i n. [banishment , exile]. Transf., [place of exile]; plur. = 'exules', [exiles].

exsolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum (1) [to loosen , untie, unbind, open]; 'glaciem', [to dissolve]; of persons, [to disentangle, set free]; of things, [to explain].(2) [to pay off; to discharge any obligation, perform anything due].

exsors -sortis [without lot; for which no lot has been cast , specially chosen; having no share in, deprived of (with genit.)].

exspuo -spuere -spui -sputum [to spit out; to get rid of , cast away].

exstinguo -stinguere -stinxi -stinctum [to put out , extinguish]; of persons, [to kill]; in gen., [to abolish, destroy, annihilate].

exsuctus -a -um partic. of exsugo; q.v.

exsulto (exulto) -are [to leap up frequently or violently]. Transf. , [to rejoice exceedingly, exult, triumph]; of orators, etc.[to run riot, range freely].

exsurdo -are [to deafen]; of taste , [to make dull or blunt].

exsuscito -are [to awaken from sleep]; of fire , [to kindle or fan]; mentally, [to excite, arouse]; 'se exsuscitare', [to make an effort].

exta -orum n. pl. [entrails of animals , esp. the heart, lungs, liver], used by Romans for divination.

extendo -tendere -tendi -tensum and -tentum [to stretch out , expand, extend]; milit., [to extend in order of battle]; in gen., [to increase, extend]; in time, [to extend, prolong]; [to strain, exert]. Hence partic. extentus -a -um, [wide, extensive].

extenuatio -onis f. [thinning]; as a figure of speech , [diminution, lessening].

extergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum [to wipe off , wipe clean; to strip clean, plunder].

extimesco -timescere -timui intransit. [to be terrified]; transit. [to be greatly afraid of , to dread].

extispex -spicis m. [a soothsayer predicting from the entrails of a victim].

extollo -ere [to lift up , raise up]; of buildings, [to raise, erect]; of spirits, etc., [to elevate, exalt]; in words, [to praise or exaggerate]; sometimes [to adorn]; [to defer, postpone].

extra adv. [outside]; 'extra quam , extra quam si', [except, unless]; prep. with acc., [beyond, outside of, without; except for]; 'extra iocum', [joking apart].

extraordinarius -a -um [extraordinary , anomalous, irregular, unnatural]; milit. 'equites, cohortes', [picked troops of the auxiliary forces].

exuo -uere -ui -utum (1) [to lay aside , put off, put away]. (2) [to strip, deprive] of a thing.

exuviae -arum f. pl. [that which is taken off];of men , [dress; spoils taken from the enemy, arms, etc.]; [the skin, slough, or hide] of animals.

fabalis -e [of beans].

Fabius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

fabrica -ae f. [the art of a faber; a device , trick; a workshop].

Fabricius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

facesso facessere facessi facessitum transit. , [to do eagerly, perform, fulfil, accomplish]; 'homini negotium', [to give trouble to]; intrans. [to make off, go away, depart].

facilis -e [easy to do; easy to manage , convenient, favorable]; of movement, [easy, mobile]; of persons, [facile, dexterous, clever]; of character, [affable, easy, good-natured]. N. acc. as adv., facile, [easily, without difficulty; indisputably, certainly]; 'haud facile', [not easily, hardly]; 'facile pati', [to bear willingly].

facilitas -atis f. [easiness , ease]; of character, [willingness, friendliness, affability, good-nature].

facinus -oris n. [a deed , action]; esp. [a bad deed, crime, villainy]; hence [instrument of crime]; in plur., [criminals].

facio facere feci factum (the pass. is fio; q.v.). Transit. , [to make, form, do, perform]; of feelings and circumstances, [to cause, bring about]; esp. 'copiam' or 'potestam', [to give a chance, grant permission]; with clause as object, esp. with subj., e.g. 'fac sciam', [let me know]; 'facere non possum quin', [I cannot but]; of troubles, [to experience, suffer]; with double acc., [to make, appoint, change into]; with genit., [to make something the property of a person or thing, to bring into the power of], or mentally, [to put into the category, to regard, esteem, value]; with acc. and infin., [to take it, assume or to make out, represent] that a thing is so. Intransit., [to act]; with adverbs, [to behave]; [CONTINUED]

facio facere feci factum [2 of 2] 'facere cum' , or 'ab homine', [to act on the side of, support; to sacrifice; to be serviceable, to suit, help, be of service]; used instead of repeating another verb, [to do so]. Hence partic. factus -a -um, [done, wrought]; n. of compar., factius, [nearer to achievement]; n. of positive as subst. factum -i, [a deed, act, exploit].

factio -onis f. (1) [a making , doing];also [the right of making or doing]. (2) [a party, group]; esp. [a political party, faction, side].

facundia -ae f. [eloquence , readiness of speech].

facundus -a -um [eloquent , fluent, ready of speech]; adv. facunde.

faecula -ae f. [lees of wine].

faeneus -a -um [of hay]; 'homines' , [men of straw].

faex faecis f. [the dregs or lees of liquid , esp. of wine]; fig., socially, [the dregs, the lower orders].

fagineus -a -um [of beech].

faginus -a -um [of beech].

Falernus ager [the Falernian country , in Campania]; n. of adj. as subst., Falernum -i, [Falernian wine].

fallo fallere fefelli falsum [to deceive , lead astray, cause to be mistaken]; 'nisi fallor', [unless I am mistaken]; of abstr. things, [to disappoint, fail in]; poet., [to beguile, wile away; to escape the notice of, be concealed from]; impers. 'non fallit me', [I am not unaware]. Hence partic. falsus -a -um. (1) [wrong, mistaken, misled]; n. as subst., [a mistake]; abl. as adv., falso, [falsely, mistakenly]. (2) [false, untrue, spurious]. (3) [deceitful, lying]; n. as subst. [a lie]; Adv. false.

falx falcis f. [a sickle , bill-hook, pruning-hook; a sickle-shaped implement of war].

fames -is f. [hunger , famine; insatiable desire; poverty of expression].

familia -ae f. [a household (of slaves) , establishment]; 'pater familias or paterfamilias', [the head of a household]; 'materfamilias', [a married woman or an unmarried woman whose father was dead]; 'filiusfamilias'[a son still under his father's power]. Transf., [a family estate; a family], as a subdivision of a gens; any [fraternity, group, sect].

familiaris -e (1) [belonging to the slaves of a house]; as subst. familiaris -is , m. [a servant, slave]. (2) [belonging to a family or household; known in the house or family, intimate, friendly]; m. and f. as subst.[a familiar friend]. (3) in augury, 'fissum familiare', or 'pars familiaris', [the part of the entrails relating to the persons sacrificing]. Adv. familiariter, [familiarly, intimately].

famosus -a -um pass. , [much spoken of, renowned]; in bad sense, [infamous, notorious]; act., [libellous, defamatory].

famulatus -us m. [servitude , slavery, service]; meton., [an establishment of slaves].

farratus -a -um [provided with grain; made of corn].

farreus -a -um [made of spelt or corn].

fartor -oris m. [a fattener of fowls].

fascis -is m. [a bundle , packet]; plur., fasces, [bundles of sticks with an axe projecting, carried by lictors before the chief Roman magistrates];hence [high office], esp. [the consulate].

fastidiosus -a -um [squeamish , nice, dainty, fastidious]; with genit. [sick of, disgusted with, impatient of]; in act. sense, [disgusting, loathsome]. Adv. fastidiose, [fastidiously, with disgust].

fastigium -i n. [the gable end , pediment of a roof]; hence [a slope, either up or down]; of measurements looking up, [height]; looking down, [depth]; abstract, [high rank, dignity]; [principal point in a subject].

fastus (1) -a -um: 'dies fastus' plur. 'dies fasti' , or simply 'fasti', [day on which the praetor could administer justice, court-days]. Transf. [a list of these days, with festivals, etc., the Roman calendar; a register, record; a list of magistrates].

fatum -i n. [an utterance , esp. a divine utterance]; hence [destiny, fate, the will of a god]; personif. Fata, [the Parcae or Fates]; [doom, fate, misfortune, ruin, calamity].

Faunus -i m. [a mythic deity of the forests].

faux f.; usually plur. fauces -ium , [gullet, throat, jaws]. Transf., [a chasm, gorge, defile; an isthmus, neck of land; straits].

faveo favere favi fautum [to favor , be favorable to, help, support], with dat.; with infin., [to be inclined to do]. Esp. as religious t.t., [to speak no words of bad omen]; hence [to be silent].

favilla -ae f. [glowing ashes , esp. of the dead; a spark].

fax facis f. (1) [a torch] , esp. as carried at weddings and funerals. (2) [a firebrand]; of persons, [instigator]; of things, [stimulus]. (3) [light, flame], esp. of heavenly bodies; fig., [brilliance or passion].

Februarius -i m. or Ferbruarius Mensis , [the cleansing month, February]; 'Kalendae Februariae', [the 1st of February].

februum -i n. [religious purification]; Februa -orum , pl. [the Roman feast of purification on the 15th of February].

felix -icis [fruitful , fertile]. Transf., [of good omen, favorable, bringing good luck; fortunate, lucky, successful]; Felix, [the Lucky One, surname of Sulla]. Adv. feliciter, [fruitfully; auspiciously, favorably; luckily, successfully].

femina -ae f. [a female , woman]; of animals, [the female].

feralis -e [relating to the dead , funereal; deadly, fatal; mournful]; n. pl. as subst. [the festival of the dead, in February].

ferculum -i n. [a frame , litter, bier, tray]; of food, [a course or dish].

ferinus -a -um [relating to a wild beast , wild]; f. as subst. [flesh of wild animals, game].

fermentum -i n. [leaven , yeast; a kind of beer]. Transf. [anger, passion].

fero ferre tuli latum (1) [to bear , bring, carry]; 'prae se ferre', [to display, make public]; often, [to endure, submit to]; esp. with adv., 'ferre aegre', [to take ill, be vexed at]. (2) [to bring forth, produce]. (3) [to bring to a place or a person, fetch, offer]; 'suffragium, sententiam', [to vote]; 'legem', [to propose a law]; 'ferre ut', [to propose that]; commercial, 'expensum ferre', [to set down in an account-book as paid]; [to cause, bring about; to report to others, spread abroad, speak of]; 'fama fert', [the story goes]; esp. [to publish a person's praises] (4) [to bear away, carry off]; 'ferre et agere', [to plunder]. Transf., [to win, get]; 'centuriam, tribus', [to gain the votes of]. [CONTINUED]

fero ferre tuli latum [2 of 2] (5) [to bear along , move forward, put in motion]; milit., 'signa ferre', [to march]. Transf., [to move, impel, carry away]; without object, [to lead, tend].

ferramenta -orum n. pl. [tools made of , or shod with, iron].

ferrarius -a -um [of iron]; m. as subst. [a blacksmith]; f. pl. as subst. [iron mines].

ferratilis -e [in irons]; of slaves.

ferreus -a -um [of iron; made of iron or like iron; hard , unfeeling, cruel; immovable, firm].

ferrugo -inis f. [iron rust; the color of rust].

ferveo fervere ferbui (and fervo fervere fervi) [to be boiling hot , to boil, seethe, glow]. Transf., [to be in quick movement, to seethe; to be excited by passion, rage]. Hence partic. fervens -entis, [glowing, hot, heated]; of character or feeling, [heated, fiery]. Adv. ferventer, [hotly, warmly].

fervidus -a -um [boiling , seething, foaming]; of character or feelings, [fiery, passionate, excited].

festivitas -atis f. [gaiety , jollity]; of speech or writing, [cheerfulness, humor].

festivus -a -um [of a holiday , festive; merry, good-humored, cheerful]; adv. festive.

festuca -ae f. [a stalk , stem, straw]. Transf., [a rod used in the manumission of slaves].

festus -a -um [of a holiday , festive]; of people, [keeping holiday]; n. as subst. [a feast].

fetialis -is m. [one of a college of priests responsible for formally making peace or declaring war]; as adj. = [belonging to the fetiales].

fetura -ae f. [the bringing forth of young , breeding]; meton., [brood, offspring].

fetus (1) -a -um (1) [pregnant; fruitful , fertile; teeming with, full of]. (2) [that has brought forth, newly delivered].

fetus (2) -us m. [the bringing forth or hatching of young]; of the soil , [bearing, producing]. Transf., [that which is brought forth; offspring, brood]; of plants, [fruit, produce, shoot].

fibra -ae f. [a fiber , filament; the entrails of an animal].

fictilis -e [shaped]; hence [earthen , made of clay]; n. as subst., esp. pl. [earthenware, earthen vessels].

ficulneus -a -um [of the fig tree].

ficulnus -a -um [of the fig tree].

fides (1) -ei f. [trust , confidence, reliance, belief, faith]; 'fidem facere', [to create confidence, cause belief]; as mercantile t.t., [credit]. Transf., [that which produces confidence; faithfulness, conscientiousness]; 'fidem praestare', [to be loyal]; '(ex) bona fide', [in good faith, with sincerity]; of things, [credibility, actuality, fulfillment]; [a promise, assurance, word of honor, engagement]; 'fidem fallere', [to break a promise];'servare', [to keep a promise]; 'fide mea', [on my word of honor]; 'fides (or fides publica)', [a promise of protection, safe-conduct]; hence, in gen., [faithful protection, constant help].

fidicinus -a -um [of lute playing].

Fidius -i m. [a surname of Jupiter]; esp. in phrase , 'medius fidius', [So help me God!].

figularis -e [of a potter].

figura -ae f. [form , shape, figure, size; an atom; shade of a dead person]; in the abstr., [kind, nature, species]; rhet., [a figure of speech].

filum -i n. [a thread]; 'pendere filo (tenui)' , [to hang by a thread]; [a wooden fillet]. Transf. [form, shape]; of speech or writing, [texture, thread].

finio -ire [to bound , limit, enclose, restrain; to define, determine, appoint; to put an end to, conclude, finish]; esp. [to finish speaking, or to die]; pass., [to end, cease]. Perf. partic. finitus -a -um; of a phrase, [well-rounded]; adv. finite, [moderately, within bounds].

fio fieri factus sum used as pass. of facio. (1) of persons and things , [to be made, come into existence]; with predicate, [to become, be appointed]; with genit., [to be valued at]. (2) of actions, [to be done]; of events, [to happen]; with abl., 'quid illo fiet ?', [what will happen to him ?]; 'fieri ut', [to come about that]; 'fieri non potest quin', [it must be that].

firmamentum -i n. [a means of support , prop; the main point in an argument].

firmitas -atis f. [firmness , stability; strength of mind, constancy].

firmitudo -inis f. [firmness , stability; strength of mind, constancy].

firmo -are [to make firm , strengthen; to make durable, make secure]; of spirits, [to encourage, cheer, animate]; of ideas, [to prove, establish], also [to assert, maintain].

fistula -ae f. [a water-pipe; a reed-pipe , shepherd's pipe]; 'eburneola', [a pitchpipe of ivory].

flabra -orum n. pl. [blasts of wind , breezes].

flaccus -a -um [flabby]; of men , [flap-eared].

flagellum -i n. [a whip , scourge; the thong of a javelin; a young sprout, vine-shoot]; plur. [the arms of a polypus]; fig., [the sting of conscience].

flagito -are [to entreat , ask, demand earnestly; to demand to know; to summon before a court of justice].

flamen (1) -inis m. [the priest of some particular god].

flaminica -ae f. [the wife of a flamen].

flaminium -i n. [the office of a flamen].

Flaminius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

flamma -ae f. [a flame , blazing fire]; Transf.[a source of light, torch, star, lightning; luster, glitter; the fire or glow of passion; devouring flame, destruction].

Flavius -a -um [name of a Roman gens , to which the emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian belonged].

flecto flectere flexi flexum [to bend]. (1) [to alter the shape of , to bow, twist, curve]. Transf., [to change, alter, influence]. (2) [to alter the direction of, to turn, wheel]; 'vocem', [to modulate].

fletus (1) -a -um partic. of fleo; q.v.

flexibilis -e [that can be bent , flexible]; of speech or the voice, [adaptable]; in bad sense, [fickle, changeable].

flexio -onis f. [bending]; 'vocis' or 'modorum' , [modulation of the voice]; 'deverticula flexionesque', [twists and turns].

flexuosus -a -um [full of windings and turnings , crooked].

flexus (1) -a -um partic. of flecto; q.v.

flexus (2) -us m. [bending , turning]; of the voice, [modulation]. Transf. [change, alteration].

flo flare flavi flatum [to blow]; intransit. , of winds, persons and instruments; transit., [to blow, blow forth; to blow on an instrument; to cast metals, to coin].

floccus -i m. [a flock of wool];'flocci non facere' , [to think nothing of].

Flora -ae f. [the goddess of flowers , and Spring]; adj. Floralis -e, [belonging to Flora]; n. pl. as subst. [the festival of Flora].

floreus -a -um [made of flowers; rich in flowers , flowery].

floridus -a -um [flowery , blossoming; made of or rich in flowers]; of age, [fresh, blooming]; of speech, [flowery, florid].

flos floris m. [a flower , blossom]. Transf., [the prime, flower] of anything, [the best, the pride]; on the face, [first beard, down]; 'vini', [bouquet]; of speech, [ornament].

flosculus -i m. [a little flower]. Transf. , [best part, pride]; of speech, [ornament].

fluctuo -are [to be wave-like , move up and down]; sometimes of a [glittering effect]; of persons and passions, [to be tossed about, to waver].

fluctuosus -a -um [full of waves , stormy].

flumen -inis n. [flowing]; hence [a river , stream]; 'flumine secundo', [downstream]; 'flumine adverso', [upstream]; fig., [a stream of blood, tears, etc.].

flumineus -a -um [of a river].

fluo fluere fluxi fluxum: of fluids [to flow]; of a solid object , [to flow, drip with any liquid]. Transf., in gen., [to flow, stream, pour];of abstr. things, [to proceed, issue, spread]; of circumstances, [to tend]; of language, [to flow; to sink, droop]. Hence pres. partic. fluens -entis, [flowing]; hence [lax]; of speech, [fluent or diffuse]; adv. fluenter, [in a flowing manner]. Past partic. fluxus -a -um, [flowing]; hence [leaky]; of solid objects, [waving, fluttering, loose]; of character, [lax, loose, weak]; of abstr. things, [fleeting, unstable].

fluvialis -e [of a river].

fluviatilis -e [of a river].

foliatus -a -um [leafy]; n. as subst. [a salve or oil of spikenard leaves].

follis -is m. [a leather bag; a pair of bellows; a purse; a puffed-out cheek].

fontanus -a -um [of a spring or fountain].

Fonteius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

for fari fatus dep. [to speak , say]; also [to speak of].

foras [out of doors , forth, out]; '(scripta) foras dare', [to publish].

forceps -cipis m. and f. , [a pair of tongs, pincers].

fore forem , used as fut. infin. and imperf. subj. of sum; q.v.

forensis -e [relating to the market or forum]; hence [of the business of the Roman forum , esp. legal].

forfex -ficis f. [a pair of shears or scissors].

foris (2) adv. (1) [situated out of doors , outside, without]; sometimes, [abroad, outside Rome]. (2) [from without, from abroad].

Formiae -arum f. [town on the coast of Latium]; adj. Formianus -a -um.

formido (2) -inis f. [dread , terror]; meton., [source of fear, dreadfulness, awfulness; a scarecrow].

formula -ae f. [physical beauty]; legal , [set form, formula]; esp. [the form of an alliance]; in gen., [rule, principle].

fornacalis -e [of an oven].

fortitudo -inis f. [physical strength , moral bravery, courage]; plur., [deeds of bravery].

fortuna -ae f. [chance , fate, lot, luck, fortune]; 'fortuna prospera, secunda', [good fortune]; 'adversa', [misfortune]. Transf., [lot, condition, state, mode of life; property, possessions].

fortuno -are [to make happy , bless, prosper]. Hence partic. fortunatus -a -um, [blessed, lucky, fortunate; well off, wealthy, rich]. Adv. fortunate, [happily, fortunately].

forum -i n. [an open square , marketplace]; 'forum bovarium', or 'boarium', [the cattle-market]; 'forum holitorium', [the vegetable-market]; 'forum piscarium', or 'piscatorium', [fish-market]; in gen., [a place of public business], commercial, political and judicial, esp. in Rome. Transf., of the business transacted in a forum; 'forum agere', [to hold an assize]; 'forum attingere', [to apply oneself to public business].

forus -i m. [the gangway of a ship; a block of seats in the theater]; plur. , [tiers of cells in a beehive].

fotus partic. of foveo; q.v.

fragmentum -i n. [a piece broken off , fragment].

fragor -oris m. [a breaking; a noise of breaking , crack, crash].

frango frangere fregi fractum [to break , break in pieces, shatter]; 'gulam laqueo', [to strangle]; 'fruges saxo', [to grind]; 'diem morantem mero', [to shorten]; of persons, passions, etc., [to master, subdue, humble]; 'frangi animo', [to be discouraged]. Hence partic. fractus -a -um, [broken, humbled, enfeebled].

fraternus -a -um [of a brother , brotherly, fraternal]; sometimes [of a cousin]. Transf., [of a related person; of some thing related to another]. Adv. fraterne, [in a brotherly manner, like a brother].

fraus fraudis f: act. , [deceit, fraud]; 'sine fraude', [honorably]; in gen., [a crime, offence; delusion, error; damage, harm]; 'sine fraude', [without harm].

fraxineus -a -um [of ash wood , ashen].

fraxinus (1) -i f. [an ash tree]; meton. , [a spear or javelin, with a shaft of ash wood].

fraxinus (2) -a -um [of ash wood , ashen].

Fregellae -arum f. [town of the Volsci , in Latium].

frequens -entis [crowded , numerous, full]; of places, [full, frequented, populous]; of time, [repeated, frequent, constant]; of persons, [often doing a thing]; of things, [often done or used]. Adv. frequenter, [in large numbers; frequently, often].

frequentia -ae f.: of persons , [a large concourse, numerous assembly, population]; of things, [a large number, abundance].

frequento -are [to crowd]; of number , [to collect in large numbers; to fill a place] with people or things; [to do a thing in crowds or with a crowd]; of time, [to do or use a thing frequently]; 'domum', [to visit often]; 'Hymenaee! frequentant', [they repeat].

fretum -i n. [a strait , sound, estuary, firth, channel]; 'fretum Siciliae, fretum Siciliense', or 'fretum', [the Straits of Messina]; [the sea in gen.], usually plur.; fig., [disturbance, turmoil].

frigidus -a -um [cold , cool, chilly]; f. sing. as subst. [cold water]. Transf., in act. sense, [chilling, causing cold]; fig., [cold, dull, lifeless]; of speech, [flat]. Adv. frigide, [coldly; languidly, feebly].

frigus -oris n. [cold , coolness; the cold of winter; a cold place; the cold of death or fright]. Transf., [coldness in action, dullness, indolence; a cold reception, coolness, disfavor].

frivolus -a -um [trifling , worthless]; n. pl. as subst. [sticks of furniture].

frondator -oris m. [a pruner of trees].

frondosus -a -um [full of leaves , leafy].

frons (1) frondis f. [a leaf , foliage]; meton., [a chaplet or crown of leaves].

frons (2) frontis f. [the forehead , brow]; 'frontem contrahere', [to frown]. Transf., in gen., [the front, forepart]; milit., [the van]; [the outside end of a book roll; frontage (in measuring land)].

frontalia -ium n. pl. [the frontlet of a horse].

fructus -us m.: abstr. , [enjoyment, enjoying]; concr., [proceeds, profit, produce, income]; esp. [the fruits of the earth].

frugalitas -atis f. [frugality , economy, honesty]; of style, [restraint].

frumentarius -a -um [of grain or corn]; 'res' , [the supply of corn]; m. as subst. [a corn- merchant].

frumentatio -onis f. [a foraging; a distribution of corn].

frumentator -oris m. [a forager or a provider of corn].

fruor frui fructus and fruitus dep. [to have the benefit of , to enjoy], usually with abl.; 'votis', [to obtain one's wishes]; as legal t.t., [to have the use and enjoyment of].

frutex -ticis m. [a shrub , bush]; as a term of reproach, [blockhead].

fruticosus -a -um [bushy or full of bushes].

frux frugis f. , usually plur. fruges -um, [fruits of the earth]; in gen., [fruits, success]; 'ad bonam frugem se recipere', [to improve oneself]. Dat. sing. frugi, used as adj., [useful, honest, discreet, moderate].

fucus (1) -i m. [red or purple dye; red or purple color; rouge]; in gen. , [paint, dye] of any color; [bee-glue]. Transf., [deceit, pretence].

Fufius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

fugio fugere fugi fugitum [to flee]. Intransit. , [to take to flight, run away; to pass away, disappear]. Transit., [to flee from, run away from, avoid]; with infin., 'fuge quaerere', [do not seek]; of things, [to escape the notice of] a person. Hence partic. fugiens -entis, [fleeing; avoiding], with genit.; [fleeting, deteriorating].

fulcrum -i n. [the post or foot of a couch].

fulgur -uris n. [a flash or stroke of lightning]; sometimes [an object struck by lightning]; in gen. , [brightness].

fullonica -ae f. [the art of fulling].

fulmen -inis n. [a stroke of lightning , a thunderbolt]. Transf., [a crushing calamity; mighty or irresistible power].

fulmineus -a -um [of lightning; like lightning , rapid or destructive].

Fulvius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

fumeus -a -um [smoky , full of smoke].

fumidus -a -um [smoky , full of smoke].

funalis -e [attached to a rope]. N. as subst. funale -is , [the thong of a sling; a wax torch].

fundo (1) fundere fudi fusum: of liquids [to pour , pour out]; of metals, [to melt, cast]. Transf., [to pour out, shower, give abundantly]; [to squander]; 'se fundere', [to rush, stream]; of sounds, [to utter]; with emphasis on distribution, [to spread, extend, scatter]; milit., [to rout, defeat, scatter, put to flight]. Hence partic. fusus -a -um, [spread out, extended]; 'crines', [flowing free]; of speech, [diffuse]; adv. fuse, [widely, copiously].

fundo (2) -are [to lay the foundation of , to found]; also [to make firm, to strengthen]. Hence partic. fundatus -a -um, [founded, firm].

fundus -i m. [ground; the bottom or base of anything; a farm , estate].

funebris -e [of a funeral , funereal; deadly, destructive].

funereus -a -um [of a funeral , funereal; fatal, ill-omened].

funginus -a -um [of a mushroom].

fungus -i m. [a mushroom , fungus; a dull, stupid fellow; a 'thief' in the wick of a candle. a candlesnuff].

funus -eris n. [a funeral , burial]. Transf., [the corpse; death; destruction, ruin; a cause of ruin].

furca -ae f. [a (two-pronged) fork , a pitchfork; a fork-shaped prop or pole; an instrument of punishment, with two prongs to which the arms were tied]; geograph., [a narrow pass].

furcula -ae f. [a little fork; a fork-shaped prop]; geograph. , [a narrow pass, esp. of the Caudine forks].

furia -ae f. , usually plur., [rage, frenzy, madness, passion]; personif., of [the mythological Furies, avenging deities]; fig., of persons.

Furius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

furo -ere [to rage , rave, be mad]; often of impassioned persons, [to rave, be frantic]; 'furere aliqua', [to be madly in love with].Adv. from partic. furenter, [furiously].

furor (2) -oris m. [madness , raving, insanity; furious anger, martial rage; passionate love; inspiration, poetic or prophetic frenzy]; meton., [an object of passion].

fuscus -a -um [dark-colored]; of the voice , [indistinct].

futurus -a -um used as future partic. of sum; q.v.

Gabii -orum m. [an ancient city of Latium]; adj. Gabinus -a -um.

Gabinius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

Galba -ae m. [a cognomen of the Sulpician gens; esp. of Ser. Sulpicius , Roman emperor A.D. 68-69].

galbaneus -a -um [of galbanum]; q.v.

galbanum -i n. [the resinous sap of a Syrian plant].

Galli -orum m. pl. [the Gauls , a Celtic people, to the west of the Rhine and in the north of Italy]; Gallia -ae, f. [Gaul, land of the Gauls]; Cisalpina = [Northern Italy]; Transalpina = [France]; adj. Gallicanus and Gallicus -a -um, [Gaulish]; f. as subst., gallica, [a slipper].

galliambus -i m. [a song of the priests of Cybele].

gallinaceus -a -um [of poultry]; 'gallus' , [a poultry cock].

gallinarius -a -um [of poultry]; m. as subst. , [poultry farmer].

Gallus (2) -i m. usually plur. Galli -orum , m. [a priest of Cybele].

Ganymedes -is m. [the cup-bearer of Jupiter].

gaudeo gaudere gavisus sum [to rejoice , be glad]; with abl. of cause, [to delight in]; 'in sinu gaudere', [to rejoice in secret].

gaudium -i n. [joy , gladness, delight; a source of delight].

gaza -ae f. [the royal treasure of Persia]; in gen. , [treasure, riches, wealth].

gemitus -us m. [a sigh , groan]; of things, [groaning, roaring].

gemma -ae f. [a bud or eye of a plant]. Transf. , [a jewel, gem, precious stone; a jewelled goblet; a seal-ring, seal; a literary gem].

gemmeus -a -um [made of or set with jewels; bright].

gemo gemere gemui gemitum intransit. , [to sigh, groan]; of lions, [to roar]; of doves, [to coo]; of things, [to creak]; transit. [to sigh over, lament, bemoan].

Genava -ae f. [a town of the Allobroges] (now Geneva).

generosus -a -um [of noble birth , noble, well-bred]; of a place, [producing well]. Transf., of character, [noble, magnanimous]. Adv. generose, [nobly].

geniculatus -a -um [knotty , full of knots].

genitalis -e [creative , fruitful]; 'dies', [birthday]; of Diana, [presiding over births]. Adv. genitaliter, [in a fruitful manner].

genius -i m. [the guardian spirit of a man or place , a genius]; esp. [of a spirit of enjoyment, one's taste, inclination]; 'genium curare', [to enjoy oneself]. Transf., [talent, genius].

gens gentis f. [a clan , stock, people, tribe, nation]. Transf., [an offspring, descendant; a district, country]; esp. in partitive genit.: 'ubi gentium', [where in the world?]; plur., 'gentes', [foreigners].

genticus -a -um [of a nation , national].

gentilicius -a -um [of a particular gens].

gentilis -e [of a gens; of a country , national].

gentilitas -atis f. [the relationship between the members of a gens].

genus (1) -eris , n. [birth, descent, origin; race, stock, family, house]; hence [offspring, descendants; sex]; in gen., [class, kind, variety, sort]; in logic, [genus]; of action, etc., [fashion, manner, way].

georgicus -a -um [agricultural]; n. pl. as subst. Georgica -orum , [the Georgics of Vergil].

gestito -are [to carry often , wear often].

gestus -us m. [carriage of the body , posture]; esp. [the gestures of an actor or orator].

Getae -arum m. pl. [a people of Thrace living near the Danube]. Adj. Geticus -a -um , [Thracian]; adv. Getice, [after the Getic fashion].

gladiator -oris m. [one hired to fight at public shows , a gladiator]; hence [bandit, brigand]; 'gladiatoribus', [at a show of gladiators].

gladiatorius -a -um [of gladiators , gladiatorial]; n. as subst., [gladiator's pay].

gladiatura -ae f. [the profession of gladiator].

glareosus -a -um [gravelly , full of gravel].

glaucoma -atis n. (also -ae , f.) [disease of the eye, cataract].

gleba (glaeba) -ae f. [a lump or clod of earth]; hence [land , soil; a piece, lump of anything].

globus -i m. [a ball , globe, sphere; a troop, crowd, mass of people].

glomus -eris n. [clue , skein, ball of thread].

gloria -ae f. [fame , renown, glory]. Transf., of a member of a group, [the pride, the glory; desire of glory, ambition, boastfulness]; plur. [glorious deeds].

Gnatho -onis m. [a parasite in the Eunuchus of Terence]; in gen. , [parasite].

Gnossus (Gnosus) -i f. [an ancient city of Crete , the residence of Minos]; adj. Gnosius and Gnosiacus -a -um, [Gnosian; Cretan]; f. adj. Gnosias -adis, and Gnosis -idis, [Cretan] and as subst., [Ariadne].

Gracchus -i m. [a cognomen in the Gens Sempronia] , esp. of Tiberius and Gaius, the 'Gracchi'. Adj. Gracchanus -a -um.

gracilis -e [slender , thin, slim]; of style, etc. [simple, without ornament].

Gradivus -i m. [a surname of Mars].

gradus -us m. [a step].(1) [a step as made , a pace];'suspenso gradu', [on tiptoe]; 'gradum facere', [to step]; 'gradum inferre', [to advance]; hence in gen., [an approach].(2) [a step as climbed, a stair]; hence any [tier, gradation; a braid of hair]; abstr., [degree, stage; rank, position]; milit., [station, post].

Graeci -orum m. pl. [the Greeks]; sing. Graecus -i , m. [a Greek]; as adj. Graecus -a -um, [Greek]; adv. Graece, [in the Greek language]; f. subst. Graecia -ae, f. [Greece]; 'Magna Graecia', [the Greek colonists in the south of Italy]; dim. Graeculus -i, m. [a little Greek].

gramineus -a -um [grassy , of grass]; also [of cane or bamboo].

grammatista -ae m. [a teacher of grammar or languages].

grandis -e [full-grown , big, great, large]; in stature, [tall]; in years, [old]. Transf., [great, important]; of style, [lofty, grand, sublime].

granditas -atis f. of style , [loftiness, sublimity].

gratia -ae f. (1) [charm , attraction, pleasantness]; personif., [the three Graces (Euphrosyne, Aglaia, Thalia)]. (2) [favor with others; esteem, regard, popularity]. (3) [a favor done, service, kindness]; abl. gratia, [on the account of]; 'mea gratia', [for my sake]. (4) [thankfulness, thanks]; in sing. and plur.: 'gratias agere', with dat. [to express thanks]; 'gratias habere', [to be grateful]; abl. plur. gratiis or gratis, [without recompense, for nothing, gratis].

gravis -e (1) [heavy]; of sound , [low, deep]; fig. [weighty, important]; of character, [dignified, serious]; of style, [elevated, dignified]. (2) [burdened, laden, weighed down]; esp. [pregnant]. (3) [burdensome, oppressive; grievous, painful, unpleasant]. Adv. graviter, [heavily, weightily, reluctantly,; grievously, painfully].

gravitas -atis f. (1) [weight]; fig. , [consequence, importance]; of character, [dignity, authority, seriousness].(2) [heaviness; pregnancy, dullness, faintness]. (3) [pressure]; fig., [unpleasantness].

gregalis -e [of a herd or flock; common , ordinary]; m. pl. as subst. [companions, associates, accomplices].

gregarius -a -um [of a herd or flock]; 'miles' , [a private soldier].

gressus -us m. [a step]; of a ship , [course].

grex gregis m. [a herd , flock, drove]; of people, [a troop, band, esp. a philosophical sect or troop or soldiers]; 'grege facto', [in close order].

grunnitus -us m. [the grunting of a pig].

gusto -are [to taste , take a little of; to partake of, enjoy].

Gyaros -i f. and Gyara -orum , n. [a barren island in the Aegean, used as a place of exile under the empire].

Gyges -is and -ae m. [a king of Lydia , famous for his ring]; adj. Gygaeus -a -um.

gymnasiarchus -i m. [the master of a gymnasium].

gymnasium -i n. [school of gymnastics , gymnasium]; also [a place for philosophical discussion].

ha! hahae! hahahae! exclamations of joy or amusement.

habeo -ere -ui -itum [2 of 2] 'ut nunc res se habet' , [as things now are]; intransit., 'bene habet', [all right]; with adv., rarely, [to use, manage, treat]; with double acc., or dat., or pro and abl. [to hold, consider, regard in a certain light]. Perf. partic. habitus -a -um, [disposed; in a certain condition (physical or mental)].

habeo -ere -ui -itum [to have , hold; to have about one, carry, wear; to contain]; more generally, [to possess, have power over]; absol., [to possess property, be wealthy]; of places, [to own, inhabit, or rule over]; of persons, [to keep], esp. in a certain state or relation. Transf., 'habere in animo', [to have in mind, intend]; 'habes consilia nostra', [you know of] 'habeo dicere', [I have it in my power to say]; 'bonum animum habere', [to be of good courage]; 'odium', [to cherish hatred]; 'invidiam', [to experience ill-will]; 'misericordiam', [to involve or cause pity]; 'concilium', [to hold a council]; 'orationem', [to make a speech]; with reflex., [to keep oneself, be] in a condition; 'graviter se habere', [to be ill]; [CONTINUED]

habitus (2) -us m. [condition , habit, bearing]; of dress, [style]; of places, [lie of the land]; abstr., [nature, character, disposition, attitude].

Hadria -ae f. [a town in the north of Italy]; m. [the Adriatic Sea]. Adj. Hadriacus and Hadriaticus -a -um , [Adriatic].

haedinus -a -um [of a kid].

Haemonia -ae f. [an old name of Thessaly]; adj. Haemonius -a -um , [Thessalian]; f. subst. Haemonis -nidis, [a Thessalian woman].

Hamilcar -caris m. [father of Hannibal].

Hannibal -balis m. [leader of the Carthaginians in the second Punic War].

harundinosus -a -um [full of reeds].

harundo -inis f. [a reed]; meton. , for an object made of reed, [a fishing rod; limed twigs for catching birds; a pen; the shaft of an arrow, or the arrow itself; a shepherd's pipe; a flute; a weaver's comb; a plaything for children, a hobby-horse].

haruspicium -i n. [inspection of entrails , divination].

Hasdrubal (Asdrubal) -balis m. [the brother of Hannibal].

hastatus -a -um [armed with a spear]; m. pl. as subst. , hastati -orum, [the front rank of the Roman army when drawn up for battle].

hastile -is n. [the shaft of a spear; a spear; a prop for vines , etc.].

haustus -us m. [drawing of water]; legal , [the right to draw water]; of air, [inhaling]; of drink, [drinking, a draught]; of solids, [a handful].

hebdomas -adis f. [seventh day of a disease] (supposed critical).

Hebe -es f. [the cup-bearer of the gods].

Hebrus -i m. [the chief river of Thrace].

Hecate -es f. [goddess of magic and enchantment]; adj. Hecateius -a -um and f. Hecateis -idis , [Hecatean, magical].

Hector -toris m. [son of Priam , husband of Andromache]; adj. Hectoreus -a -um.

Hecuba -ae and Hecube -es f. [wife of Priam].

Helena -ae and Helene -es , f. [wife to Menelaus, carried off by Paris to Troy].

hemina -ae f. [a measure of capacity , about half a pint].

hendecasyllabi -orum m. pl. [verses of eleven syllables , hendecasyllables].

Henna (Enna) -ae f. [city of Sicily , with a temple of Ceres]; adj. Hennensis -e and Hennaeus -a -um.

hepteris -is f. [a galley with seven banks of oars].

herba -ae f. [vegetation; a green plant; a blade or stalk , esp. of corn or grass].

Herculaneum -i n. [town in Campania , destroyed by eruption of Vesuvius].

Hercules -is and -i m. [the son of Jupiter and Alcmena]; voc. Hercules or Hercule or Hercle , used as an oath, [by Hercules]; so also mehercules, mehercule, mehercle; adj. Herculeus and Herculaneus -a -um.

hereditarius -a -um [of an inheritance; inherited , hereditary].

Hero -us f. [a priestess of Sestos , loved by Leander].

herous -a -um [of a hero , heroic]; m. as subst., [a hexameter].

Hesiodus -i m. [an early Greek poet of Boeotia].

Hesperus or -os -i m. [the Evening Star]; adj. Hesperius -a -um , [western]. f. as subst. Hesperia -ae, [the western land; Italy or Spain]; f. adj. Hesperis -idis, [western]; f. subst. Hesperides -um, [daughters of Hesperus, living in the extreme west].

hesternus -a -um [of yesterday].

hexeris -is f. [a galley with six banks of oars].

hiatus -us m. [a cleft , opening; the opening of the mouth, open jaws]; hence [gaping after, desire for]; gram. [hiatus].

hibernus -a -um [wintry , of winter; like winter, cold or stormy, wintering; for the winter]; n. pl. as subst. [winter quarters].

hiemalis -e [of winter; wintry , stormy].

hiems (hiemps) -emis f. [winter; the cold of winter; stormy weather , storm].

hillae -arum f. pl. [intestines of animals; a kind of sausage].

Hilotae and Ilotae -arum m. pl. [the Helots , slaves of the Spartans].

hinc adv. [from here , hence]; 'hinc atque illinc', [on this side and that]; of causation, [hence, from this cause]; of time, [henceforth, or thereupon].

hio -are [to open , stand open; to gape] esp. in astonishment and longing; of speech, [to hang together badly]; with acc. object, [to pour forth].

Hippias -ae m. [son of Pisistratus , tyrant of Athens].

Hippocrates -is m. [a physician of Cos (flourishing about 430 B.C.)].

Hippolytus -i m. [son of Theseus].

hircinus -a -um [of a goat; goatlike].

hircosus -a -um [of a goat; goatlike].

Hirtius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

Hispani -orum m. pl. [the Spaniards]; Hispania -ae , f. [the whole of the Spanish peninsula]; adj. Hispaniensis -e, and Hispanus -a -um.

Hister (Ister) -tri m. [name of the lower part of the Danube].

historia -ae f. [inquiry; the results of inquiry; learning; historical narrative , history]; in gen., [narrative, story].

historicus -a -um [of history , historical]; m. as subst. [a historian].

histricus -a -um [of actors].

histrionalis -e [of actors].

hiulcus -a -um [gaping , cleft, open; gaping with desire, longing]; of speech, [badly put together]; adv. hiulce, [with hiatus].

hodiernus -a -um [of today].

holitorius -a -um [of herbs]; 'forum' , [vegetable market].

honos and honor -oris m. [honor , a mark of honor or respect, distinction]; 'honoris causa', [with due respect, or to honor, or for the sake of]; personif., [Honor]; frequently, [an office of dignity, a public office]; also [an offering to the gods, sacrifice]; poet., [beauty, grace].

hora -ae f. [an hour , the twelfth part of a day or night]; 'hora quota est?' [what time is it?]; 'in horam vivere', [to live for the moment]; in gen., [time, season]; in plur. [a clock, dial]; personif., [the Hours, goddesses who presided over the seasons].

Horatius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

hornotinus -a -um [of this year , this year's].

hornus -a -um [of this year , this year's]; adv. horno, [this year].

horreo -ere [to bristle , be rough]; of the hair, [to stand on end]; of persons, [to shudder, dread]. Gerundive as adj. horrendus -a -um, [horrible, dreadful; awful, worthy of reverence].

horresco horrescere horrui [to stand on end , bristle, be rough]; of persons, [to tremble, shudder, begin to dread].

horrifer -fera -ferum [causing shudders of cold or fear].

horror -oris m. [bristling , shuddering; roughness of speech; dread, fright, esp. religious dread, awe]; meton., [object of dread, a terror].

hortativus -a -um [of encouragement].

Hortensius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

hospitalis -e [of a guest or host; friendly , hospitable]; adv. hospitaliter.

hosticus -a -um [foreign]; but usually [of the enemy , hostile]; n. as subst. [enemy territory].

hostilis -e [of , by or for the enemy; like an enemy, unfriendly, hostile]; adv. hostiliter.

Hostilius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

hui exclamation of surprise , [eh! hallo!].

huiusmodi or huiuscemodi [of this kind].

humanitus [after the manner of men]; also [kindly].

humanus -a -um [human , of human beings]; m. as subst. [a human being]; of good qualities, [humane, kind, educated, civilized, refined]. Adv. humane and humaniter, [humanely, politely, courteously, kindly].

humilis -e [on or near the ground , low, shallow]. Transf., of rank, etc., [humble, poor, insignificant]; of character, [abject or submissive]; of language, [mean, without elevation]. Adv. humiliter, [humble, meanly, abjectly].

Hylas -ae m. [companion of Hercules].

Hymen -enis and Hymenaeos or -us -i m. [Hymen , the god of marriage; the marriage song; a wedding (esp. in plur.)].

hyperbaton -i n. [transposition of words].

Iacchus -i m. [name of Bacchus]; meton. , [wine].

iaceo iacere iacui [to lie , be situated; to lie low, lie flat; to lie sick or overthrown or killed]; of hair or clothes, [to hang loosely]; fig., [to be neglected, despised; to be overthrown; to be cast down, dejected].

iacto -are [to throw , cast, toss, fling away or about; to diffuse, spread, scatter; to harass, disturb] a person; [to broadcast] words; [to bring up, discuss] a subject; [to keep bringing up, boast of]. With reflex., or in pass., [to gesticulate]; also ['to throw one's weight around', make oneself conspicuous]. Pres. partic. iactans -antis, [boastful]; adv. iactanter.

iam adv. [now , by now, already]; of future time, [immediately, presently, soon; henceforth; further, moreover; just, indeed]; 'iam diu, iam dudum, iam pridem', [now for a long time].

Ianiculum -i n. [a hill west of Rome].

ianus -i m. [a covered passage , arcade]; personif., Ianus, [Janus, an old Italian deity with two faces]; adj. Ianalis and Ianualis -e; hence also adj. Ianuarius -a -um, [of Janus or of January]; 'Ianuarius (mensis)', [January].

Iason -onis m. [leader of the Argonauts].

Icarus -i m. [son of Daedalus , drowned while flying with wings made by his father]; adj. Icarius -a -um, [of Icarus].

Ida -ae and Ide -es f. [name of two mountains , one in Crete, one in Phrygia, near Troy]; adj. Idaeus -a -um.

idem eadem idem [the same]; with dat. , or ac, et, etc., [the same as]; by way of addition, [also]; of contrast, [yet]; 'alter idem', [a second self].

Idus -uum f. pl. [the Ides , a day in the Roman month; the fifteenth day of March, May, July, October; the thirteenth in other months].

iecur iecoris and iocineris n. [the liver; supposed seat of the passions].

ieiunus -a -um [fasting , hungry, thirsty]; of objects, [poor, scanty]; of spirit, [poor, mean]; of style, [meager, weak]. Adv. ieniune, of style, [meagerly].

ignigena -ae m. [born of fire].

ignipotens -entis [ruler of fire].

ignis -is m. [fire , conflagration; a watch-fire, beacon; a firebrand; lightning]; in gen. [glow, glitter]. Transf. [a firebrand (of war); glow of passion; the beloved].

ignobilis -e [unknown , obscure; of humble birth].

ignominiosus -a -um: of persons [disgraced]; of things , [ignominious, disgraceful].

ignoro -are [to be ignorant of , not to know]; rarely, [to neglect, ignore].

Ilia -ae f. [mother of Romulus and Remus].

ilignus -a -um [of ilex or holm oak].

Ilion or Ilium -i n. and Ilios -i , f. [Troy]; adj. Ilius and Iliacus -a -um, [Trojan]; Ilienses -ium, m. pl. [Trojans]; Iliades -ae, [a son of Troy] Ilias -adis, f. [a Trojan woman, or the Iliad of Homer].

imago -inis f. [an image , copy, likeness; any representation, portrait, statue]; in plur. [waxen figures, portraits of ancestors; the shade or ghost of the dead; an echo; a mental picture, idea, conception]; rhet., [metaphor, simile, image]; abstr. [mere form, appearance, pretence].

imber -bris m. [a shower or storm of rain , pelting rain; a rain-cloud; water or any fluid; a shower of missiles].

immanis -e [enormous , immense, monstrous]; of character, [savage, horrible, inhuman].

immemorabilis -e [indescribable; unworthy of mention; silent , uncommunicative].

immitto -mittere -misi -missum (1) [to send in , put in, work in; to engraft] (2) [to let loose]; esp. [to let grow]. (3) [to let go against, launch against]; 'se in hostes', [to attack]; of feelings, [to instil].

immodestia -ae f. [want of restraint].

immunis -e [without duty , free, exempt]; in gen. [not working or not contributing; not sharing in, devoid of; stainless].

immunitas -atis f. [exemption , from offices or burdens; immunity].

impar -paris [unequal , uneven; unlike, discordant; ill-matched]; of numbers, [odd]; 'modi impares', [hexameter and pentameter]. Adv. impariter, [unevenly, unequally].

impedimentum -i n. [hindrance , impediment]; in plur. [the baggage of an army or traveller].

impedio -ire [to entangle , ensnare, obstruct, surround; to embarrass, hinder, prevent]. Hence partic. impeditus -a -um, [entangled, hindered]; milit. [hindered by baggage]; of places, [impassable, blocked]; in gen. [embarrassed, obstructed; awkward, complicated].

impendo -pendere -pendi -pensum [to weigh out]; hence [to expand , lay out]; partic. impensus -a -um, of price, [considerable, great]; in gen. [strong, vehement]. Adv. impense, [at great cost; urgently, eagerly].

imperator -oris m. [commander , leader]; milit., [the commander-in-chief]; also of the Roman emperors.

imperatorius -a -um [of a general; imperial].

imperiosus -a -um [commanding]; 'sibi' , [master of oneself]; in bad sense, [imperious, tyrannical].

imperium -i n. [an order , a command; the right to order, power, mastery, command]; esp. [political power, authority, sovereignty]; 'in imperio esse', [to hold office]; meton. [empire], and in plur., [persons in authority].

impluvium -i n. [an opening in the roof of a Roman house , or the basin for rain-water below it].

importunus -a -um [unsuitable , ill-adapted, unfavorable; troublesome, tiresome]; of character, [assertive, inconsiderate].

impotens -entis [feeble , powerless]; with genit., [not master of]; esp. [unable to command oneself, violent, unrestrained]. Adv. impotenter, [weakly; intemperately, passionately].

impotentia -ae f. [poverty; lack of self-restraint , violent passion].

impressio -onis f. [physical pressure , an attack, assault]; rhet. [distinct expression, emphasis]; philos. [sense-data, the impression of the senses].

imprimis [especially , first of all].

improcerus -a -um [small , low of stature].

imprudentia -ae f. [lack of foresight or knowledge; ignorance; lack of wisdom , imprudence].

in prep. (1) with acc. , [into, on to, towards, against]; of time, [until]; 'in omne tempus', [for ever]; 'in diem vivere', [to live for the moment]; of tendency or purpose, [for]; in adverbial phrases, indicating manner or extent: 'in universum', [in general]; 'in vicem', 'in vices', [in turn]. (2) with abl., [in, on, among]; of time, [in, at, within]; of a person, [in relation to, in the case of].

Inachus (Inachos) -i m. [mythical king of Argos , father of Io, after whom the river Inachus in Argolis was named].

inanis -e [empty , void]; 'equus', [riderless]; 'navis', [unloaded]; 'corpus', [soulless]; with genit. or abl., [empty of]; of persons, [empty-handed, poor]; fig. [vain, hollow, idle]. N. as subst. [empty space, emptiness, vanity]. Adv. inaniter, [vainly, uselessly].

inauditus -a -um [unheard (esp. of accused person); unheard of , unusual].

incedo -cedere -cessi -cessum [to walk , step, march; to proceed, come on]; of feelings, with dat., [to come over].

incendium -i n. [a conflagration , fire; a torch, firebrand]; of passion, [fire, glow, heat]; in gen., [destruction, ruin].

inceptum -i n. of partic. of incipio; q.v.

incertus -a -um [uncertain , doubtful, not sure]. (1) as to fact; act., of persons, [not knowing, doubting]; pass., of things, [unknown, obscure]; n. as subst. [uncertainty]. (2) as to action, [hesitating, irresolute, undecided]; 'incertam securim', [not surely aimed].

incessus -us m. [march , walk; manner of walking, gait; attack, assault; entrance, approach].

incido (1) -cidere -cidi -casum [to fall in or upon; to fall in with]; 'in hostem' , [to attack]; 'in aes alienum', [to run into debt]; 'in mentionem', [to happen to mention]; of abstr. things, [to occur, happen, 'crop up'].

incido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum [to cut into , cut open; to inscribe, engrave an inscription; to make by cutting; to cut through]; fig., [to cut short, bring to an end, break off]. Hence, from partic., n. subst. incisum -i = incisio; q.v.; adv. incise = incisim; q.v.

incipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum (cf. coepi) [to take in hand , begin, commence]; sometimes, [to commence to speak]. N. of partic. as subst. inceptum -i, [a beginning; an attempt, enterprise].

incisio -onis f. [a clause of a sentence].

inclino -are transit. [to bend , incline, turn; change, sometimes for the worse]; in pass., [to fall back, waver]; intransit. [to take a turn, verge, incline, change]; milit., [to waver, yield]. Hence partic. inclinatus -a -um, [inclined, prone; sinking]; of the voice, [low, deep].

incrementum -i n. [growth , increase]; meton. [the makings of anything], also, [offspring].

increpo -are -ui (-avi) -itum (-atum) [to rustle , make a noise; to be noised abroad]; transit. [to cause to sound]. of persons, [to chide, rebuke].

incultus (1) -a -um [uncultivated , untilled]; n. pl. as subst. [wastes, deserts]; of dress, etc., [neglected, untidy]; in gen. [unpolished, rude]. Adv. inculte.

incultus (2) -us m. [neglect , want of cultivation].

incursus -us m. [an attack , assault]; of the mind, [efforts, impulses].

indago (2) -inis f. [surrounding and driving of game].

indignatio -onis f. [indignation; matter for indignation]; rhet. , [the exciting of indignation].

indignitas -atis f. [unworthiness , vileness; unworthy behavior or treatment of others, indignity; indignation at unworthy treatment].

indignor -ari dep. [to consider unworthy , take as an indignity, be offended]. Hence partic. indignans -antis, [offended].

indignus -a -um: of persons [unworthy , not deserving] (with abl. or genit.); of things, [unworthy]; hence [disgraceful, shameful]. Adv. indigne, [unworthily, dishonorably; impatiently, indignantly].

indigus -a -um [needing , in want of].

indo -dere -didi -ditum [to put in or on]; of names , [to give, confer]; of abstr. things, [to introduce, cause, occasion].

indocilis -e [unteachable , untaught; ignorant, rude, artless]; of subjects, [unable to be learned].

indu archaic form of in; q.v.

indubito -are [to feel doubt of] with dat.

induo -duere -dui -dutum [to put on] , esp. of dress. Transf., [to clothe, surround, cover; to put on, assume, take up, engage in]; 'se', with dat. or 'in', [to fall into, fall on; to entangle].

indutiae -arum f. pl. [truce , armistice, suspension of hostilities].

ineo -ire -ii -itum intransit. [to go or come in , to enter]; of time, [to begin, commence]; transit. [to go or come into; to enter upon, start, begin]; 'consilium', [to form a plan]; 'numerum', 'rationem', [to go into figures, make a calculation].

infamia -ae f. [dishonor , disgrace]; also [a cause of disgrace].

infans -fantis [speechless , unable to speak]; esp. of children; as subst., [a little child]. Transf., [tongue-tied, embarrassed; youthful, fresh; childish, silly].

infantia -ae f. [inability to speak; slowness of speech; infancy].

infatuo -are [to make a fool of].

infensus -a -um [hostile , aggressive]; of weapons, [aimed, ready]; in spirit, [embittered, dangerous].

inferiae -arum f. [offerings in honor of the dead].

infernus -a -um [below , coming from below; of the lower world, infernal]. As subst., m. pl. inferni, [the shades]; n. pl. inferna, [the lower world].

infero inferre intuli inlatum [to carry in , to put or place on]; 'templis ignes inferre', [to set fire to]; milit., 'signa in hostem', [to attack, charge]; 'bellum', with dat., [to make war on]; 'se inferre', and pass. 'inferri', [to betake oneself, to go]; of abstract things, [to bring on, introduce, occasion]; in accounts, [to enter]; in logic, [to infer, conclude].

inferus -a -um [below , lower, southern; of the lower world].M. pl. as subst. inferi -orum, [the dead, the lower world]. Compar. inferior -ius, [lower] 'ex inferiore loco dicere', [to speak from the body of the court]; of time, [later, junior]; of number, rank, etc. [lower, inferior]. Superl. (1) infimus (infumus) -a -um, [lowest]; 'ab infima ara', [from the bottom of the altar]; of rank, etc. [lowest, meanest].Superl.(2) imus -a -um, [lowest] n. as subst. [the bottom]; of tone, [deepest, lowest]; of time, [last]; n. as subst., [the end].

infimus -a -um superl. of inferus; q.v.

infinitus -a -um [infinite , unbounded, immense]; n. as subst., [infinite space]; of time, [endless, unceasing]; of number, [countless]; also [indefinite, general]. Adv. infinite, [infinitely, endlessly].

inflo -are [to blow into; to play on wind instruments; to give a blast; to blow out , puff out]. Transf., [to inspire; to puff up, elate]. Hence partic. inflatus -a -um, [inflated, swollen; puffed up, pompous]; of style, [turgid]. Compar. adv. inflatius, [too pompously, on a grander scale].

informo -are [to give form to , to shape, fashion]; mentally, [to form, dispose; to form an idea or conception of].

infrequens -entis [scanty , thin, now crowded]; of places, [not full, scantily populated]; of time, [infrequent]; of persons, [not doing a thing often].

infrequentia -ae f. [fewness , scantiness, thinness]; of places, [emptiness, loneliness].

ingeniosus -a -um [talented , able]; of things, [requiring talent or naturally fit, adapted]. Adv. ingeniose, [cleverly].

ingenium -i n. [nature , natural quality, constitution, character], esp. [mental power, ability, genius]; meton., [a man of genius, or a clever invention].

ingenuus -a -um [native , natural, innate; free-born, of free birth, worthy of a free man, noble, honorable, frank]. Adv. ingenue.

ingero -gerere -gessi -gestum [to carry or put in or upon; to press upon , force upon]; of abuse, [to heap on] a person.

inhonestus -a -um morally , [degraded, dishonored]; of things, [dishonorable, shameful]; physically, [ugly, unsightly]. Adv. inhoneste, [dishonorably].

inhospitalitas -atis f. [want of hospitality].

inibi adv. [therein , in that place]; of time, [near at hand].

inicio -icere -ieci -iectum (1) [to throw in , put in or into]. Transf., [to cause, inspire, occasion]; in conversation, [to throw in]. (2) [to throw on or over]; 'manum inicere', [to lay hands on, appropriate, take possession of]. Transf., [to impose, lay on].

inimicus -a -um [unfriendly , adverse, hostile]; of things, [hurtful, prejudicial]; m. or f. subst. [enemy, foe]. Adv. inimice, [in an unfriendly manner].

iniquus -a -um [uneven , unequal]. Transf., of things, [excessive, unbalanced, adverse, disadvantageous]; of contests, [ill-matched]; of terms, [unfair, unfavorable; perverse, disgruntled]; 'animo iniquo ferre', [to take badly]; m. pl. as subst. [enemies]. Adv. inique, [unequally; unfairly, adversely].

initium -i n. [a beginning]; 'ab initio' , [from the start]; initio, [at the start]. Transf., in plur. [elements, first principles; auspices; the beginning of a reign; a secret worship, mysteries].

inlectus (3) -a -um partic. of inlicio; q.v.

inliberalis -e [unworthy of a free man , ungenerous, sordid, mean]; adv. inliberaliter.

inlumino -are [to light up , illuminate; to make clear, set off, adorn]. Adv. inluminate, [luminously, clearly].

inopia -ae f. [want of means , need, poverty; helplessness].

inops -opis [poor , helpless, in need]; of language, [weak, poor].

inreverentia -ae f. [want of respect , irreverence].

inrogatio -onis f. [the imposing of a fine or penalty].

insanus -a -um [of unsound mind , mad, raving, senseless]; of poets, [inspired]; of things, [raging, stormy]. Adv. insane, [madly].

inscitia -ae f. [inexperience , want of skill, ignorance].

insido -sidere -sedi -sessum [to sit , settle, perch upon]; milit., [to occupy, beset]; of ideas, etc., [to sink in].

insilia n. pl. [the treadles of a loom] , or perhaps [leash-rods].

insinuatio -onis f. rhet. t.t. , [gaining the favor of the audience].

insomnia -ae f. [sleeplessness , loss of sleep].

insto -stare -steti (1) [to stand in or on]. (2) [to be close to , follow closely, pursue eagerly; to devote oneself, persist, persevere; to insist, ask pressingly]; of time and events, [to approach, impend]. Hence partic. instans -antis, [present; pressing, urgent]; adv. instanter, [urgently].

instruo -struere -struxi -structum [to build in or into; to set up , construct; furnish], hence [to train a person]; [to prepare, provide]; milit., [to draw up the order of battle]. Hence partic. instructus -a -um, [equipped, supplied]; of persons, [trained, instructed].

insuetus (1) -a -um of persons , [unaccustomed, unused to]; of things, [unaccustomed, unusual].

insula -ae f. [an island]. Transf. , [a detached house or block of flats].

integer -gra -grum (1) [complete , whole, entire, intact; fresh, sound, unexhausted]; 'in integrum restituere', [to restore to its former condition]. (2) in quality, [unspoilt, pure, fresh]; morally, [innocent, uncorrupted, pure]; in thought or feeling, [balanced, unbiased, impartial]; of matters for discussion or action, [unprejudiced, undecided]; 'integrum est mihi', [I am at liberty]. (3) [renewed, begun afresh]. Hence adv. integre, [wholly; honestly, uprightly, impartially]; of style, [purely, correctly]

integritas -atis f. [unimpaired condition , soundness, health; uprightness, integrity]; of style, [purity, correctness].

intemperantia -ae f. [want of restraint , extravagance, excess].

intemperies -ei f. [wildness , lack of restraint, excess].

intempestus -a -um [unwholesome , unhealthy]; 'intempesta nox', [the dead of night].

intendo -tendere -tendi -tentum (1) [to stretch , strain]; abstr., [to maintain, try to prove]. (2) [to extend, aim, direct]; esp. [to direct one's course; to apply the mind, direct the thoughts; to intend, aim at]. Hence partic. intentus -a -um, [stretched, tense, taut]; of thought or feeling, [anxious, intent]; of speech, [earnest]; in gen. [thorough, strict, rigorous]. Adv. intente, [earnestly, attentively].

intentio -onis f. [stretching , straining]; of the mind, [effort, exertion, attention; an attack, accusation].

inter prep. with acc. [between , among, amid; during, in the course of]; with pronouns, 'inter se, inter nos', etc., [between one another, mutually].

interamenta -orum n. pl. [woodwork of a ship].

intercessio -onis f. legal , [becoming surety, going bail]; polit., [an exercise by the tribunes of their veto].

intercipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum [to take by the way , intercept; to embezzle, appropriate]; through death, [to cut off, carry off prematurely]; of roads [to block].

intercludo -cludere -clusi -clusum [to shut off , block, hinder; to enclose, shut in].

intericio -icere -ieci -iectum [to throw , cast, put among or between]; 'anno interiecto', [after an interval of a year].

interiectus -us m. [throwing between]; of time , [an interval].

interimo -imere -emi -emptum [to take away , destroy, make an end of; to put out of the way, kill].

interlunium -i n. [change of moon , time of new moon].

intermenstruus -a -um [between two months]; n. as subst. [the time of the new moon].

intermissio -onis f. [leaving off , interruption].

intermitto -mittere -misi -missum transit. [to leave a space between , leave free]; in space, [to separate, break off]; in time, [to let pass]; in gen., [to discontinue, interrupt]; 'vento intermisso', [the wind having dropped]; intransit. [to cease, leave off].

intermorior -mori -mortuus dep. [to die off , perish suddenly]; partic. intermortuus -a -um, [swooning, half-dead]; fig., [lifeless].

interrogatio -onis f. [questioning , interrogation]; esp. legal, [examination of witnesses]; in logic, [an argument, syllogism]; gram., [interrogation].

interscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum [to cut open , cut off, tear apart].

intono -tonare -tonui [to thunder , thunder forth] (esp. of speakers).

intonsus -a -um [unshorn , with long hair or beard]; hence of persons, [rude, rough]; of country, [wooded, not cleared].

intorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum [to twist or turn round]; of weapons , [to hurl]; partic. intortus -a -um, [twisted, tangled].

intra adv. , [inside]; prep. with acc., [inside, within, less than, short of].

introitus -us m. [an entrance; means of entrance; passage]; in gen. , [beginning, introduction].

inveho -vehere -vexi -vectum [to carry in , introduce]; pass., or with reflex., [to drive, ride or travel], esp. [to advance against, attack]; of verbal attack, [to inveigh].

inveteratus -a -um [of long standing , established].

invideo -videre -vidi -visum [to envy , grudge, be envious of]. Hence partic. invisus -a -um: pass. [hated]; act. [hostile].

invidia -ae f.: act. [envy , jealously, ill-will]; pass. [odium, unpopularity]. Transf. [a source of ill-will].

Io (Ion) -us f. [an Argive girl , loved by Jupiter and changed into a cow]; adj. Ionius -a -um, [Ionian, of the sea between Italy and Greece, across which Io swam].

Iphigenia -ae f. [daughter of Agamemnon].

ipse -a -um [self]; 'ego ipse' , [I myself]; [the very, actual]; with numbers, et., [just, exactly]; of action, [by oneself, of one's own accord].

ira -ae f. [wrath , anger, rage]; meton., [cause of anger].

iracundia -ae f. (1) [angry disposition , irascibility]. (2) [state of anger, fury, wrath].

Iris -ridis f. [messenger of the gods , and goddess of the rainbow].

iste ista istud demonstr. pron. or adj. [that of yours , that beside you]; in speeches, referring to parties opposed to the speaker (opp. to hic, 'my client'); often contemptuous.

Isthmus (-os) -i m. [the Isthmus of Corinth].

istic (1) istaec istoc or istuc [that of yours].

istiusmodi or istius modi or istimodi [of that kind , such].

iter itineris n. [going , way, direction; journey, march; right of way, permission to march]; concr., [way, road]; fig., [way, course, method].

Ithaca -ae and Ithace -es f. [an island in the Ionian Sea , home of Ulysses].

Iuba -ae m. [name of two Numidian kings].

iudex -icis m. [a judge]; in plur. , [a panel of jurors].

iudicatus -us m. [the office of business of judge].

iudicialis -e [of a court of justice , judicial].

iudiciarius -a -um [of a court of justice , judicial].

iudicium -i n. [a trial , legal investigation; a law-court; jurisdiction, judgment, considered opinion, decision; power of judging, discernment, understanding, good judgment].

iudico -are [to be a judge , judge, decide, declare]; perf. partic., iudicatus -a -um, of persons, [condemned]; of things, [decided].

iugalis -e [yoked together]; m. pl. as subst. [a team of horses]. Transf. , [matrimonial, nuptial].

iugatio -onis f. [the training of vines on a trellis].

iugerum -i n. [a measure of land] , about two thirds of an English acre.

iugis -e [perpetual , continuous], esp. of water.

iugulo -are [to cut the throat of , to butcher; to ruin, destroy].

iugum -i n. (1) [a yoke or collar]. Transf. , [a team of oxen or horses; a pair, couple; a chariot; any bond, union; the bond of love, marriage-tie; the yoke of slavery]. (2) [a cross-bar; esp. the yoke under which the vanquished were sent; the beam of a pair of scales; a ridge between mountains]; plur., poet., [mountain heights].

Iugurtha -ae m. [a king of Numidia]; adj. Iugurthinus -a -um.

Iulius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; including the family of the Caesars; 'mensis Iulius' or 'Iulius' , [the month of July].

Iulus -i m. [son of Aeneas].

iumentum -i n. [a beast of burden].

iunceus -a -um [made of rushes; like a rush].

iuncosus -a -um [full of rushes , rushy].

Iunius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens]; 'mensis Iunius' or 'Iunius' , [the month of June].

Iuno -onis f. [the goddess Juno , Greek Hera, sister and wife of Jupiter]; adj. Iunonius -a -um, [Junonian].

iurisdictio -onis f. [the administration of justice; judicial authority].

ius (2) iuris n. [right , law; a court of justice; jurisdiction; right as conferred by law]; 'iure', [rightly].

iustitium -i n. [a suspension of legal business]; in gen. [pause , cessation].

Iuvenalis -is m. D. Iunius , [a Roman writer of satires].

iuvenesco iuvenescere iuvenui [to come (or come back) to the prime of life].

iuventus -utis f. [youth , the prime of life](between the ages of 20 and 45); meton., [young men].

iuxta adv. [close by , near; in like manner, equally]; prep. with acc., [close to, near to]; in time, [just before]; in gen. [near to, just short of].

Ixion -onis m. [king of the Lapithae in Thessaly , bound to a perpetually revolving wheel in Tartarus].

Kalendae -arum f. [the first day of a Roman month].

Labienus -i m. , T., [an officer of Julius Caesar, who went over to Pompey].

labor (2) (labos) -oris m. (1) [work , toil, effort, industry, capacity for work; feat, work, result of labor]. (2) [hardship, fatigue, distress]; 'labores solis', [eclipse of the sun].

laboriosus -a -um: of things [toilsome , laborious]; of persons, [industrious, toiling]. Adv. laboriose, [laboriously, with toil].

Lachesis -is f. [one of the three Parcae or Fates].

lacinia -ae f. [the flap of a garment].

lactens -entis (1) [sucking milk]; plur. as subst. , [sucklings, unweaned animals]. (2) [milky, juicy, full of sap].

lacteus -a -um [milky , of milk; milk-white].

lacunosus -a -um [full of hollows or gaps].

laedo laedere laesi laesum [to strike , knock]; hence [to hurt, injure, damage; to offend, annoy; to violate, outrage].

Laertes -ae m. [father of Ulysses].

laetus -a -um [fat , rich, fertile; glad, joyful, happy]; of style, [rich, copious, fluent]. Adv. laete.

lageos -ei f. [a Greek kind of vine].

Laius -i m. [father of Oedipus].

lambo lambere lambi [to lick]; of rivers , [to wash].

lamina lammina , and lamna -ae, f. [a plate or thin piece of metal, marble, etc.; knife-blade; coin; nutshell].

lampas -padis f. [a torch]; hence [brightness] , esp. of the sun; also [a meteor].

laneus -a -um [of wool , woollen; soft as wool].

languidus -a -um [faint , weak, limp]; of wine, [mild, mellow]; adv. languide.

lanista -ae m. [a trainer of gladiators; an instigator to violence , inciter].

lanugo -inis f. [down , of plants or on the cheeks].

lanx lancis f. [a plate , platter; the scale of a balance].

Laomedon -ontis m. [a king of Troy , father of Priam].

lapidatio -onis f. [throwing of stones].

lapidator -oris m. [thrower of stones].

lapideus -a -um [of stone].

lapidosus -a -um [full of stones , stony].

Larentia -ae f. or Acca Larentia , [the wife of Faustulus, who brought up Romulus and Remus].

largus -a -um of things , [abundant, plentiful, numerous]; with genit., [rich in]; of persons, [liberal, bountiful]. Adv. large, [plentifully, liberally]; largiter, [abundantly, much].

latebrosus -a -um [full of hiding-places , secret]; 'pumex', [porous]. Adv. latebrose, [secretly].

latericius -a -um [built of brick].

Latinus (2) -i , m. [king of the Laurentians, host of Aeneas].

Latium -i n. [a district of Italy , in which Rome was situated]; adj. Latius and Latinus -a -um, [Latin]; adv. Latine, [in Latin].

Lato -us f. and Latona -ae , f. [the mother of Apollo and Diana].

lator -oris m. [the proposer of a law].

latrocinium -i n. [mercenary service; highway robbery , brigandage, villainy, roguery]; meton., [a band of robbers].

latus (1) -a -um [broad , wide, extensive]; of style, [diffuse, full, rich]. Hence adv. late, [broadly, widely, extensively]; 'longe lateque', [far and wide].

latus (2) -eris n. [the side , flank]; of persons, in pl., [the lungs]; milit., 'in latere', [on the flank].

laureatus -a -um [crowned with laurel]; 'litterae' , [bringing news of victory].

laureus -a -um [of laurel]; f. as subst. , laurea, [laurel tree or crown].

Lavinia -ae f. [daughter of Latinus , wife of Aeneas].

laxus -a -um [wide , loose, spacious]; of time, [later, postponed; loose, lax, relaxed]. Adv. laxe, [widely, loosely, without restraint].

lectio -onis f. [a picking out , selection, reading, perusal]; 'lectio senatus', [a calling over of the names of the senators].

lectisternium -i n. [a feast offered to the gods].

lectito -are [to read often or eagerly].

Leda -ae and Lede -es f. [mother of Castor and Pollux , Helen, and Clytemnestra].

legatio -onis f. [delegated authority]; polit. , [the office of an ambassador, an embassy, legation]; milit., [the post of subordinate commander]; esp. [the command of a legion].

legio -onis f. [a choosing; a chosen body]; esp. [a legion , a division of the Roman army].

lego (1) -are [to ordain , appoint]; of persons, [to make a deputy, delegate authority to]; of property, [to bequeath, leave as a legacy].M. of partic. legatus -i, [a deputy]; polit., [an ambassador, envoy, or the deputy of a magistrate]; milit., [a subordinate commander], esp. [a commander of a legion]. N. legatum -i, [a legacy, bequest].

lego (2) legere legi lectum [to collect , gather, pick, pick up]; 'fila', [to wind up, spin]; 'vela', [to furl]; of places, [to pass through, traverse, coast along]; with the eyes, [to survey, scan, read, peruse]; out of a number, [to pick out, choose, select]. Hence partic. lectus -a -um, [chosen, selected; choice, excellent].

Lemannus -i m. [the Lake of Geneva].

Lemnos (-us) -i f. [the island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea]; adj. Lemnius -a -um , [Lemnian].

lenimen -inis n. [means of alleviation].

lenocinium -i n. [the trade of a procurer; enticement , allurement]; of dress, [finery]; of style, ['purple patch'].

Lentulus -i m. [the name of a family in the patrician gens Cornelia].

leoninus -a -um [of a lion , leonine].

Leontini -orum m. [a town on the east coast of Sicily].

Lepidus -i m. [name of a family in the patrician gens Aemilia].

Lesbos (-us) -i f. [an island in the Aegean Sea , birthplace of Alcaeus and Sappho].

Lethe -es f. [the river of forgetfulness in the underworld].

lex legis f. [a set form of words , contract, covenant, agreement]; 'leges pacis', [conditions of peace]; esp. [a law, proposed by a magistrate as a bill, or passed and statutory]; 'legem iubere', [to accept or pass a bill]; in gen., [a precept, rule].

libamen -inis n. [a libation , offering to the gods; a sample, specimen].

libamentum -i n. [a libation , offering to the gods].

libella -ae f. (1) [a small coin , a tenth of a denarius; a farthing, mite]. (2) [a carpenter's level, plummet-line].

liber (2) -bri m. [the inner bark of a tree]; from the use of this in writing , [a book, volume, catalogue, letter].

liberalis -e [of freedom; worthy of a free man , gentlemanlike, courteous, generous]; adv. liberaliter.

libero -are [to set free , liberate, release, exempt]; of obstacles, [to lift, raise].

libertas -atis f. [freedom , liberty, independence; freedom of speech, frankness, candor].

libertinus -a -um [of the class of freedmen]; as subst. m. libertinus , [a freedman], f. libertina, [a freedwoman].

libet (lubet) -bere -buit or -bitum est impers. , [it pleases, is agreeable], (with dat of person). Hence partic. libens (lubens) -entis, [willing, with pleasure, pleased]; 'me libente', [with my good-will]; adv. libenter, [willingly, with pleasure].

Libitina -ae f. [goddess of the dead].

libo -are [to take away from , remove, derive; to taste, touch, impair, diminish; to give a taste of, offer to the gods].

libra -ae f. (1) [a balance , pair of scales]; 'aes et libra', [a fictitious form of sale]. (2) [the Roman pound of 12 oz.].

libramentum -i n. (1) [weight as a source of power or for balancing]. (2) [a horizontal plane].

librarius -a -um [of books]; m. as subst. , [a transcriber of books, a copyist, or a bookseller]; n. as subst., [a bookcase].

librilis -e [of a pound weight].

libro -are [to balance , hold up, poise]; of weapons, [to swing, level, brandish]; hence, [to hurl].

libum -i n. [a cake , offered to the gods].

Liburni -orum m. [the Liburnians , a people of Illyria]; f. of adj. as subst. Liburna -ae, [a light vessel, galley].

liceor -eri dep. [to bid or bid for , offer a price].

Licinius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

ligneus -a -um [made of wood , wooden].

ligula (lingula) -ae f. [a tongue of land , promontory; a shoe-strap].

Ligures -um m. pl. [the Ligurians , a people on the northwest coast of Italy].

lilium -i n. [a lily]; milit. , [a fortification consisting of pits and stakes].

Lilybaeon (-baeum) -i n. [a promontory and town at the western end of Sicily].

lima -ae f. [a file; polishing , revision of a composition].

limo -are [to file , polish, finish off; to investigate accurately; to file down, pare down, to diminish]. Partic. limatus -a -um, [refined, elegant]; compar. adv. limatius.

limus (2) -a -um of the eyes , [sidelong, looking sideways].

lineus -a -um [made of flax or linen].

lingua -ae f. [a tongue; speech , language; a tongue of land, promontory].

linteus -a -um [of linen]; n. as subst. [linen cloth , linen, esp. a sail].

lippitudo -inis f. [inflammation of the eyes].

litigiosus -a -um of persons , [fond of dispute, litigious]; of things, [full of dispute, contested at law].

lito -are intransit. [to bring an acceptable offering]; and so [to obtain favorable omens]; transit. [to sacrifice successfully].

litoralis -e [of the shore].

litoreus -a -um [of the shore].

littera (litera) -ae f. [a letter of the alphabet; a letter , dispatch, epistle]; plur., [written records, documents, deeds; literature, letters, scholarship].

litterarius -a -um [of reading and writing].

litterula -ae f. [a letter of the alphabet written small]; plur. , [a little letter, a note, a smattering of literature].

litus -oris n. [sea-shore , beach, strand, coast; the shore of a lake or river].

Livius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

loco -are [to place , put, set]; esp. [to give in marriage]; commerc., [to let out on hire, farm out, lease, invest; to contract for work to be done]. N. of partic. as subst. locatum -i, [a lease, contract].

locusta -ae f. [a locust; a kind of lobster].

Locusta -ae f. [a notorious poisoner , accomplice of Nero].

longinquitas -atis f. [length , distance]; of time, [duration].

longinquus -a -um [long , distant, far, remote, foreign]; of time, [long, distant].

longus -a -um [long]; 'navis' , [a man-of-war]; poet., [spacious]; of time, [long, of long duration]; esp. [too long, tedious]; of persons, [prolix, tedious]. Adv. longe, [a long way off, far, at a distance; by far]; in time, [long, at length]; adv. longiter, [far].

loquor loqui locutus dep. [to speak (in conversation); to tell , say, talk of].

lorum -i n. [a strap or thong of leather]; plur. , [reins, bridle; scourge, whip].

lotos (-us) -i f. [the name of several plants]; esp. [of an African tree and its fruit].

Lucanus -i m. , M. Annaeus [author of the poem Pharsalia].

Luceres -um m. [one of the three patrician tribes].

Lucilius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

Lucina -ae f. [the goddess of births].

Lucretius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

Lucrinus -i m. [a lake on the coast of Campania , near Baiae, famous for oysters].

lucrum -i n. [gain , profit advantage; love of gain, avarice].

Lucullus -i m. [name of a family in the gens Licinia].

ludibrium -i n. [derision , mockery; an object of derision, laughing-stock, plaything].

ludicer -cra -crum [sportive , done for sport; esp. of the stage]. N. as subst. ludicrum -i, [a trifle, plaything; a theatrical performance].

ludifico -are and ludificor -ari dep. [to make game of , deride, delude, cheat, frustrate].

lugubris -e [of mourning , mournful; plaintive, grievous]. N. pl. as subst., [mourning clothes].

lumen -inis n. [light; a light , lamp; the light of day, day; the light of life; the light of the eye, the eye; an opening, a light in a building]; fig., [clearness, insight; a shining light, glory, ornament].

lunaris -e [of the moon , lunar].

luo luere lui luiturus [to loose; to expiate , atone for, make good]; 'luere poenam', [to pay a penalty]; of trouble, [to avert].

Lupercus -i m. [an Italian pastoral deity , or one of his priests]; subst. Lupercal -calis, n. [a grotto, sacred to Lupercus]; Lupercalia -ium and -iorum, n. pl., [the festival of Lupercus, celebrated in February].

lupinus (1) -a -um [of a wolf , wolfish].

Lusitania -ae f. [the modern Portugal , with part of Spain].

lustralis -e [relating to expiation or to a period of five years].

lustrum (1) -i n. , usually pl., [the den of a wild beast, woodlands; brothels, debauchery].

lustrum (2) -i n. [an expiatory sacrifice; a period of five years].

luteus (2) -a -um [of mud or clay; dirty].

lux lucis f. [light]; [esp. daylight , day; a day; the light of life or of day; the eye, eyesight; illustration, elucidation; hope, encouragement; ornament].

Lyaeus -i m. [a surname of Bacchus; wine].

Lycia -ae f. [a country of Asia Minor].

Lydia -ae f. [a country of Asia Minor]; adj. Lydius and Lydus -a -um , [Lydian].

lyricus -a -um [of the lyre , lyric].

machinator -oris m. [a maker of machines , engineer; a deviser, contriver].

macrocollum -i n. [paper of the largest size].

macula -ae f. [a spot , mark, stain]; sometimes [the mesh of a net; a moral stain, blemish].

Maecenas -atis m. C. Cilnius , [the patron of Horace and Vergil].

magis (or mage) [more , to a greater extent; rather, for preference]; 'non magis..quam', [not more..than, just as]; 'quo magis..eo magis', [the more..the more]. Superl. maxime (maxume), [in the highest degree, most of all, especially, very much so]; 'quam maxime', [as much as possible]; with tum, cum, [just, precisely].

magister -tri m. [master , chief, head, director]; 'populi', [dictator]; 'equitum', [master of the horse, the dictator's lieutenant]; 'magister ludi', [a schoolmaster, teacher]; 'societatis', [director of a company]; 'elephanti', [driver]; 'navis', [master or helmsman]. Transf., [instigator, adviser, guide].

magistratus -us m. [a magistracy , official dignity, office]. Transf., [a magistrate, state official].

magnanimitas -atis f. [greatness of soul , magnanimity].

magnificentia -ae f. [loftiness of thought or action; grandeur , magnificence, splendor]; in bad sense, [boasting, pomposity].

magnus -a -um compar. maior , maius; superl. maximus (maxumus) -a -um; [great, large]; of sound, [loud]; of price or value, [high]; magno, and magni, [at a high price, dear, highly]. Transf., of time, [long, old]; of standing, [great, mighty, powerful, important]; m. pl. of compar. as subst., maiores, [ancestors]; 'in maius', [to a higher degree]; magno opere, see magnopere; for maxime, see magis.

Mago (-on) -onis m. [brother of Hannibal].

Maia -ae f. [the daughter of Atlas , mother of Mercury]; adj. Maius -a -um, [of Maia]; '(mensis) Maia', [the month of May].

maledico -dicere -dixi -dictum (sometimes separately male dico) , [to speak ill, abuse]; pres. partic. maledicens -entis, [abusive]; n. of perf. partic. as subst. maledictum -i, [cursing, abusive language].

malefacio -facere -feci -factum (sometimes separately male facio) , [to injure]; n. of perf. partic. as subst. malefactum -i, [an ill deed, injury].

malleolus -i m. [a little hammer; a kind of fire-dart].

malo malle malui [to wish rather , prefer]; with dative of person, [to be more favorable to].

malus (1) -a -um: comp. peior -us; superl. pessimus -a -um [bad , evil (physically or morally); unfavorable, unsuccessful, ugly]. N. as subst. malum -i, [an evil; harm, disaster; punishment]; as a term of abuse, [scoundrel]. Adv. male; compar. peius; superl. pessime, [badly, ill]; 'male audire', [to be ill spoken of]; [unsuccessfully, unfortunately]; with words bad in sense, [bitterly, excessively]; with words of favorable sense, with negative force, e.g. 'male gratus', [unthankful].

malus (3) -i m. [the mast of a ship; an upright , pole].

Mamers -mertis m. [the Oscan name of Mars]; hence Mamertini -orum , m. pl., [the name assumed by certain mercenary troops].

mancipium (mancupium) -i n. [a formal purchasing of anything]. Transf. [a slave acquired by mancipium].

mando (2) -are [to commit , entrust]; of actions, [to order, command, commission]. N. of partic. as subst., mandatum -i, [a commission, charge, order].

mandra -ae f. [a stall , cattle pen; a herd of cattle; a draughtboard].

manes -ium m. pl. [the shades of the departed , spirits of the dead]; poet., [the lower world, infernal regions; corpse, ashes, remains].

Manilius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

manipulus (poet. maniplus) -i m. [a handful , bundle]; milit. [a company of infantry, a division of the Roman army].

Manlius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

manubiae -arum f. pl. [money from the sale of booty , esp. the general's share; spoils, profit].

manumissio -onis f. [the emancipation of a slave].

manus -us f. [hand]; 'manus dare' , [to surrender]; 'in manibus', [on hand, in preparation]; 'servus ad manum', [a secretary]; abl. 'manu', [by hand, artificially]. Transf., [the strong arm, fist, force, effort; power, jurisdiction; the hand or touch of artist or craftsman; a band or body of men; an elephant's trunk]; 'manus ferrea', [grappling iron].

Marcellus -i m. [the cognomen of a family of the gens Claudia].

marinus -a -um [of the sea , marine]; 'ros', [rosemary].

maritimus (maritumus) -a -um [of or on the sea , marine]; 'praedo', [a pirate]; n. pl. as subst. [the sea coast].

marito -are [to marry , give in marriage]; of vines, [to bind to a tree, to train].

maritus -a -um [matrimonial , nuptial]; of plants, [tied or trained together]. As subst. maritus -i, m. [husband, lover, suitor]; marita -ae, f. [wife].

Marius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens].

marmor -oris n. [marble; marble statue; stone; the white foamy surface of the sea].

marmoreus -a -um [of marble , like marble].

Maro -onis m. [the cognomen of the poet P. Vergilius].

Mars Martis m. (old form , Mavors), [Mars, god of agriculture and of war]. Transf., [war, battle, fight]. Adj. Martius and poet. Mavortius -a -um, [of Mars]; 'Martius (mensis)', [the month of March]; [warlike]. Adj. Martialis -e, [of Mars]; m. as subst. [a priest of Mars or soldier of the Legio Martia].

Marsi -orum m. [an ancient people of Latium]; adj. Marsicus and Marsus -a -um; 'Marsicum bellum' , [the Social War].

Martialis (2) -is m. M. Valerius , [Martial, the writer of epigrams].

Martigena -ae m. [offspring of Mars].

Masinissa -ae m. [king of Numidia].

materio -are [to construct of wood].

maternus -a -um [of a mother , maternal].

matricidium -i n. [slaying of a mother , matricide].

matronalis -e [of a married woman , matronly]; n. pl. as subst. Matronalia -ium, [a festival held by Roman matrons].

matta -ae f. [a mat of rushes].

maturitas -atis f. [ripeness , maturity; the right moment, fullness of time].

matutinus -a -um [early in the morning , of morning].

maximus superl. of magnus; q.v.

medicatus -us m. [means of enchantment , charm].

medicinus -a -um [of the art of healing]; f. as subst. medicina -ae , [the art of healing; medicine; cure].

medimnum -i n. and medimnus -i , m. [a Greek measure of capacity].

medulla -ae f. [the marrow of the bones].

Medusa -ae f. [one of the Gorgons , slain by Perseus].

melilotos -i f. [a species of clover].

melior -us compar. of bonus; q.v.

Melita -ae f. [the island of Malta]; adj. Melitensis -e , [of Malta].

Melpomene -es f. [the Muse of tragic poetry].

membrum -i n. [a limb , member, part of the body; a clause in a sentence].

memini -nisse perf. with sense of present , [to remember, recollect]. Transf. [to make mention of, to mention].

memorabilis -e [remarkable , worthy of mention, memorable].

memoria -ae f. [memory , the capacity for remembering, remembrance; record of the past, tradition, history].

Memphis -is and -idos f. [a city of Egypt].

mendosus -a -um [full of faults , inaccurate, making mistakes]; adv. mendose, [faultily].

Menelaus -i m. [brother of Agamemnon , husband of Helen].

menstruus -a -um [monthly , lasting a month]; n. as subst. [rations for a month; a month in office].

mercatus -us m. [trade , traffic, business; a market, fair, place of business].

Mercurius -i m. [Mercury , messenger of the gods]; adj. Mercurialis -e, [of Mercury]; m. pl. as subst. [a corporation of traders at Rome].

meretricius -a -um [of a harlot]; adv. meretricie.

merges -gitis f. [a sheaf of corn].

meridianus -a -um [of midday , meridian; southern].

merus -a -um [pure , unmixed; complete, sheer]; esp. of wine, [undiluted]; n. as subst. merum -i, [wine unmixed with water].

messis -is f. [harvest , crop; time of harvest, harvest-tide].

messorius -a -um [of a reaper].

metamorphosis -is f. [transformation]; plur. Metamorphoses -eon , [the title of a poem by Ovid].

meto metere messui messum [to reap , mow, gather, harvest; to mow down, cut off].

metor -ari dep. and meto -are , [to measure off, lay out].

Midas (Mida) -ae m. [a king of Phrygia , who turned to gold everything that he touched].

migratio -onis f. [removal , change of home].

militaris -e [of a soldier , military]; m. as subst. [a soldier]; adv. militariter, [in a soldierly manner].

milvinus (miluinus) -a -um [of a kite].

Minerva -ae f. [goddess of wisdom and patroness of arts and sciences]. Transf. , [wit, art, skill]; esp. [working in wool].

ministro -are [to serve , wait, esp. at table; to attend to, take care of, direct; to serve, supply, provide].

Minos -ois and -onis m. [king of Crete; after his death , a judge in Tartarus].

minutal -alis n. [a dish of minced meat].

mirmillo (murm-) -onis m. [a kind of gladiator].

Misenus -i m. [the trumpeter of Aeneas]; Misenum -i , n. [a promontory and town in Campania].

missio -onis f. [a sending off , letting go, releasing, discharge; cessation, termination].

Mithridates -is m. [name of several kings of Pontus].

mitis -e [mild , soft, ripe; gentle]; of style, [mellow]; compar. adv. mitius; superl. mitissime.

Mnemosyne -es f. [Mnemosyne , mother of the Muses].

moderamen -inis n. [a means of guiding]; 'rerum' , [management, government].

modo [by measure]; hence [only , merely, but, just]; 'si modo, modo si', or 'modo' alone with subj., [provided that, if only]; 'modo ne', [provided that...not]; 'modo non', [all but, nearly]; 'non modo...sed etiam', [not only...but also]. of time, [just, lately; soon, directly]; 'modo... modo', [at one another...].

modulor -ari dep. [to measure]; in music , [to modulate, to sing to the accompaniment of an instrument; to play an instrument]. Adv. from partic. modulate, [in time (of music)].

modus -i m. [a measure , standard of measurement]; in music, [rhythm, measure, time]; in plur., [strains, numbers]. Transf., [limit, boundary; rule; manner, mode, way, method]; 'servorum modo', [after the manner of slaves]; 'eius modi', [in that manner, of that kind].

moenia -ium n. pl. [the walls or fortifications of a city , ramparts, bulwarks]; poet., [castle, dwelling].

molaris -e [of a mill; to do with grinding]; m. as subst. [a millstone; a molar tooth , grinder].

moles -is f. [a shapeless mass , e.g. of rock; a massive construction, e.g. dam, mole, large building]; 'moles belli', [large military machines]. Transf., [a mass of men; greatness, might, power; trouble, difficulty].

molestia -ae f. [annoyance , troublesomeness]; of style, [affectation, stiffness].

molestus -a -um [burdensome , troublesome, irksome]; of style, [affected, labored]. Adv. moleste, [with annoyance]; 'moleste fero', [I take it badly, am annoyed]; of style, [affectedly].

mollis -e [soft , tender, pliant, supple]; of weather, [mild]; of gradients, [easy]; of character, [tender, gentle, sensitive, or effeminate]; of circumstances, [easy, mild, pleasant]; of speech, [tender, moving]. Adv. molliter, [softly, easily, gently, mildly; effeminately].

Molossi -orum m. [a people in Epirus]. Adj. Molossus -a -um , 'pes', [a metrical foot, consisting of three long syllables]; m. as subst. [a Molossian hound].

momentum -i n. [movement , motion; change, alteration; a cause of motion, impulse; mental impulse, influence; weight, importance]; of time, [a turning point, minute, moment].

Mona -ae f. [the isle of Man]; also [the isle of Anglesey].

moneo -ere [to remind , admonish, warn, advise, instruct]. N. pl. of partic. as subst. monita -orum, [warnings; prophecies].

moneris -is f. [a vessel with one bank of oars].

Moneta -ae f. (1) [the mother of the Muses]. (2) [a surname of Jove]. (3) [the mint; money].

monetalis -e [of the mint].

montanus -a -um [of a mountain , or mountainous]; m. as subst. [a mountaineer]; n. pl. as subst. [mountainous country].

mora (1) -ae f. [delay , hindrance; any space of time].

mora (2) -ae f. [a division of the Spartan army].

Morpheus -eos m. [god of dreams].

mors mortis f. [death , a corpse; a cause of death or destruction].

Mucius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; adj. Mucianus -a -um.

Mulciber -eris and -eri m. [surname of Vulcan]; meton. , [fire].

muliebris -e [of a woman , feminine; effeminate]; adv. muliebriter.

mulierositas -atis f. [love of women].

mulierosus -a -um [fond of women].

mulinus -a -um [of a mule , mulish].

mulionius -a -um [of a muleteer].

multigeneris -e [of many kinds].

multigenus -a -um [of many kinds].

multiiugis -e [yoked many together; manifold , of many sorts].

multiiugus -a -um [yoked many together; manifold , of many sorts].

multus -a -um sing. , [much, great]; plur., [many, numerous]; multi, [the common herd]; 'ne multa', [briefly, in brief]; 'ad multum diem', [till late in the day]; 'in re multus', [prolix on a subject, busy in a matter]; occ., in sing., [many a]; n. acc. sing. as adv. multum, [much, greatly]; abl. multo, [by much, by far]. Compar. plus: in sing. n. only, [more]; genit. of value pluris, [at a higher price, of more value]; in plur. plures plura, [more numerous, several, many]. Superl. plurimus, [most, very many]; in sing., of a large number, like the English [full many a]; of energy, etc., [strong]; genit. of value plurimi, [at the highest price or value].

Mummius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

mundanus -i m. [a citizen of the world].

munia -iorum n. pl. [duties , functions; esp. official].

municeps -cipis c. [the citizen of a municipium; a fellow citizen , fellow countryman].

munificus -a -um [generous , liberal]; of wealth, [splendid]; adv. munifice.

munitor -oris m. [a builder of fortifications , sapper, engineer].

munus (moenus) -eris n. [an office , function, duty; a charge, tax; a service, favor, gift; a public show, esp. of gladiators; a public building].

muralis -e [of a wall , mural]; 'corona', [the crown given to the first man over the wall of a besieged city].

murreus (2) (myrrheus) -a -um [made of flourspar].

Musa -ae f. [a muse; a goddess of music , literature and the arts].

mustaceum -i n. and mustaceus -i , m. [a must-cake, a sort of wedding cake].

mutilo -are [to maim , mutilate, cut off; to curtail, diminish].

myrtetum (murtetum) -i n. [a grove of myrtle trees].

myrteus (murteus) -a -um [of myrtle; adorned with myrtle].

mysteria -orum n. pl. [mysteries , secrets], esp. of worship.

nablium -i n. [a kind of harp or lyre].

Naevius -a -um [name of a Roman gens; esp. of Cn. Naevius , a poet of the third century B.C.].

Narcissus -i m. [Narcissus , a beautiful young man changed into the flower of the same name].

Nasica -ae m. [name of a family of the Scipios].

Naso -onis m. [cognomen of the poet Ovid].

nasturcium -i n. [a kind of cress].

nato -are [to swim , float; to stream, flow; to swim with, be full of (with abl.)]; f. pl. of partic. as subst. natantes, [fishes].

nauarchus -i m. [captain of a ship].

nauclerus -i m. [the master of a ship].

naucum -i n. [a trifle]; in genit. 'non nauci habere' , [to think nothing of].

nauticus -a -um [of a sailor , nautical]; m. pl. as subst. [sailors].

navalis -e [of ships , naval, nautical]; n. as subst. [a station for ships]; plur. [a dockyard, or materials for ship-building].

navicularius -a -um [of (small) ships]; f. as subst. [the business of a ship-owner]; m. as subst. [a ship-owner].

Neapolis -is f. (1) [part of Syracuse]. (2) [a seaport] (now Naples).

necne [or not] , generally in the second half of alternative questions.

nectar -aris n. [nectar , the drink of the gods; honey, milk, wine].

nectareus -a -um [of nectar].

nefandus -a -um [not to be spoken of; abominable].

neglego -legere -lexi -lectum [to neglect , disregard; to make light of, overlook, omit]. Hence partic. neglegens -entis, [careless]; adv. neglegenter.

negotior -ari dep. [to carry on business; esp. as a banker]; m. of partic. as subst. negotians -antis , [a businessman].

negotiosus -a -um [full of business , busy].

negotium -i n. [business , occupation, employment, task; pains, trouble, difficulty; a matter, piece of business].

nemoralis -e [of woods or groves; sylvan].

nemorensis -e [of woods or groves; sylvan].

nemorosus -a -um [full of groves; thickly leaved , full of foliage].

Nepos -potis m. C. Cornelius , [a Roman historian, friend of Cicero].

Neptunus -i m. [Neptune , god of the sea]; adj. Neptunius -a -um.

nervus -i m. (usually plur.) , [sinew, tendon]; fig. [strength, vigor, energy; a string, esp. of an instrument; a strap, thong, fetter].

Nestor -oris m. [the most experienced of the Greek heros at Troy].

neuter -tra -trum [neither]. Transf. , [of neither sex, neuter]. Adv. neutro, [in neither direction, towards neither side].

nexus -us m. [a tying together , connecting, restraining]; also in the sense of nexum, q.v.

ni (nei) and nive [if not , unless]; also in the sense of ne, q.v.; 'quid ni?', [why not?].

niceterium -i n. [reward of victory , prize].

nimirum [undoubtedly , certainly, of course] (often ironical).

Niobe -es f. and Nioba -ae , f. [daughter of Tantalus, wife of Amphion].

nitor (1) niti nisus or nixus dep. (1) [to rest , lean, support oneself on; to trust in, depend on]. (2) [to strive, exert oneself, make an effort]; of movement, [to press on, climb up].

nivalis -e [of snow , snowy].

niveus -a -um [of snow , snowy].

nobilis -e [known; celebrated , renowned, infamous, notorious; of noble birth, highly bred]; of things, [fine].

nodosus -a -um [full of knots , knotty].

nomenclator -oris m. [a slave who reminded his master of names].

nominatio -onis f. [nomination to a public office].

nomino -are [to name , give a name to, call; to mention, speak about; to make famous; to appoint, nominate to an office; to denounce, give information against]. Hence partic. nominatus -a -um, [well-known, celebrated].

nos plur. of ego; q.v.

noster -tra -trum [our , ours; of us, to us, for us]; m. pl. nostri, [our people].

nostras -atis adj. [of our country , native].

nota -ae f. [a mark , token, note, sign]; in writing, [a letter, character; a distinguishing mark, brand]; hence [sort, quality]; also [mark of disgrace, stigma (esp. as imposed by the censor)].

notatio -onis f. [marking , noting, choice; the stigma of the censor].

noto -are [to mark , mark out, distinguish, denote; to observe; to write; to stigmatize (esp. of the censors)].

November and Novembris -bris m. [of the ninth month of the Roman year , of November]; m. as subst. [November].

novendialis -e [of nine days; happening on the ninth day; lasting nine days].

novercalis -e [of or like a stepmother].

novicius -a -um [new , fresh; esp. of persons new to slavery].

novitas -atis f. [newness , novelty, strangeness; the condition of a 'novus homo' (see novus), newness of nobility]; in pl. [new acquaintances].

novus -a -um [new , fresh, young; fresh, inexperienced; revived, refreshed; novel, unusual, extraordinary]; 'novus homo', [the first of a family to hold curule office]; 'novae res', [political changes, a revolution]; 'novae tabulae', [new account books (i.e. a cancellation of debts)]; N. as subst., [a new thing, news, a novelty]. Adv. nove, [in a new or unusual way]. Superl. novissimus -a -um, [latest, last, extreme]; 'agmen', [the rear]; adv. novissime, [lately, lastly, in the last place].

noxa -ae f. [harm , injury, damage; a fault, offence; punishment].

noxia -ae f. [a fault , offence, crime].

nubigena -ae c. [born of a cloud].

nubo nubere nupsi nuptum [to cover , veil]; of a bride, [to be married to, to marry] (with dat.); f. of partic. nupta, [married], or as subst., [a bride].

nucleus -i m. [the kernel of a nut , the stone of fruits].

Numa -ae m. Pompilius , [the second king of Rome].

numen -inis n. [nodding , a nod; as an expression of will, command, consent]; of a deity, [divine will, divine command]; hence, in gen. [divine majesty, divinity, deity].

Numitor -oris m. [king of Alba , grandfather of Romulus and Remus].

nummulus -i m. [a little piece or sum of money].

nummus -i m. [a piece of money , coin; esp. the sesterce, a coin of small value].

nunc [now , at present, as things are]; of past or future time, [then, already].

nundinatio -onis f. [the holding of a market , trade, business].

nuntius -a -um [announcing , bringing news]. M. as subst. nuntius -i: (1) [a messenger]. (2) [a message, news; esp. an official notice].

nuptialis -e [of marriage].

o interj. [O!] , an excamation of joy, astonishment, etc.

ob prep. with acc. , [in front of, before; in return for; because of, on account of]; 'ob rem', [to the purpose, with advantage].

obduco -ducere -duxi -ductum (1) [to draw over , draw in front]; of persons, [to bring forward]. (2) [to cover, close over]; 'venenum', [to swallow] 'frontem', [to wrinkle]; of time, [to pass, spend].

obeo -ire -ivi and -ii -itum Intransit. [to go to , go to meet, go against]; of heavenly bodies, [to set]; of the living, [to die]. Transit. [to go to, go over, traverse; to go over, encompass (by looking or speaking); to enter upon, engage in, perform, execute a task]; with diem or mortem, [to die].

obf- see off-.

obitus -us m. [an approach]; of heavenly bodies , [setting]; of the living, [death, downfall, destruction].

obliquus -a -um [slanting , sideways, on one side]; of speech, [indirect, covert]; [looking askance, envious]. Adv. oblique, [sideways, aslant; indirectly, by implication].

obnoxius -a -um with dat. , [liable, addicted to, guilty of; indebted, obliged, dependent on; subject to, exposed to].

obnuntiatio -onis f. [the announcement of an unfavorable omen].

obscuritas -atis f. [darkness]; of language , [obscurity]; of condition, [obscurity, low birth].

obscurus -a -um [covered , dark, obscure]; n. as subst., [darkness]; of language, [obscure, unintelligible]; of origin, etc. [unknown, obscure]; of character, [secret, reserved, close]. Hence adv. obscure, [darkly; unintelligibly; secretly].

obsero (2) -serere -sevi -situm [to sow thickly , cover with seeds, etc.]; partic. obsitus -a -um, [full of, covered with, beset by] (with abl.).

observo -are [to watch , regard, attend to]; of rules, [to keep, regard]; of persons, [to respect]. Hence partic. observans -antis, [attentive, respectful].

obsidium (2) -i n. [the condition of hostage].

obsigno -are [to seal]; of a witness , [to sign and seal]; [to stamp, impress].

obsisto -sistere -stiti -stitum [to place oneself before or in the way of; to oppose , withstand, resist].

obsolesco -escere -evi -etum [to go out of use , decay, wear out]; partic. obsoletus -a -um, [worn out, decayed; obsolete; threadbare, poor]; compar. adv. obsoletius, [more shabbily].

obsto -stare -stiti -staturus [to stand before or in the way; to oppose , resist, obstruct] (with dat.); n. pl. of partic. as subst. obstantia, [hindrances, obstacles, impediments].

obtestatio -onis f. [a calling of gods to witness; an entreaty in the name of the gods].

obtestor -ari dep. [to call as witness; to adjure , implore, entreat in the name of the gods].

obtineo -tinere -tinui -tentum transit. [to hold , possess, keep, maintain]; esp. [to maintain an assertion]; also [to take hold of, grasp]; intransit. [to hold, obtain, continue].

obvenio -venire -veni -ventum [to come in the way of , to meet; to occur, happen, fall to a person's lot].

obvius -a -um [in the way , meeting] (with dat.); [exposed; ready at hand; affable, easy of access].

occasus -us m. [the setting of heavenly bodies]; hence [the west]; in gen. [fall , destruction].

occido (2) -cidere -cidi -casum [to fall , fall down]; of heavenly bodies, [to set]; of the living, [to die, perish, be ruined]. Hence pres. partic. occidens -entis, [setting]; m. as subst. (sc. sol), [the setting sun, the west].

occipitium -i n. and occiput -itis , n. [the back of the head, occiput].

occulo -culere -cului -cultum [to cover , hide]. Hence partic. occultus -a -um, [hidden, concealed, private]; of persons, [close, reserved]. N. as subst. [concealment, secrecy, a secret]. Adv. occulte, [secretly, obscurely].

occupo -are [to take possession of , seize, occupy, master; to fall upon, attack; to take up, employ; to invest money; to anticipate, get the start on a person, be first to do a thing]. Hence partic. occupatus -a -um, [busy, engaged, occupied].

occurro -currere -curri -cursum [to run to meet; to fall upon , attack; to work against, oppose, counteract]; of things, [to crop up, occur, come to mind].

occursatio -onis f. [attention , officiousness].

occurso -are [to run to meet; to oppose]; of things , [to occur, come to mind].

Oceanus -i m. [the ocean , the sea which encompasses the earth]; personif., [the father of the Nymphs].

Octavius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; esp. of C. Octavius , [the Emperor Augustus]; adj. Octvavianus -a -um.

October -bris [belonging to the eighth month of the Roman year] , reckoning from March; [of October]; m. as subst. [October].

octogenarius -a -um [consisting of eighty].

octonarius -a -um [consisting of eight together].

octussis -is m. [a sum of eight 'asses'].

oculus -i m. [the eye]; 'esse in oculis' , [to be visible]; [an ornament, treasure; the bud or eye of a plant].

odium -i n. [hatred; an object of hatred]; 'esse odio' , with dat. [to be hated by].

odoratus (2) -us m. [smelling; the sense of smell].

odoror -ari dep. [to smell; to smell out , snuff at]; hence [to aim at, aspire to; to search into, investigate; to get an inkling or smattering of].

Oedipus -podis and -i m. [king of Thebes , son of Laius and Jocasta, fated to kill his father and marry his mother].

offendo -fendere -fendi -fensum transit. [to strike against , knock; to hit upon, fall in with; to shock, offend, displease]; intransit. [to knock, strike; to run aground; to stumble, make a mistake, to give offence (with dat.)]; also [to take offence]. Hence partic. offensus -a -um, [injured, hurt; offensive].

offensa -ae f. [a striking , knocking against; injury; displeasure, offence].

offensio -onis f. [a striking , knocking, hitting against]; 'pedis', [a stumbling]. Transf. [a misfortune, setback, indisposition; displeasure, disfavor, aversion, offence].

offensus (1) -a -um partic. from offendo; q.v.

offensus (2) -us m. [shock , collision; offence, dislike].

offero offerre obtuli oblatum [to bring forward , place before, present, offer, expose; to inflict, occasion trouble]; 'se offerre', and pass., 'offerri', [to present oneself, appear].

officio -ficere -feci -fectum [to act against; to get in the way of , impede, hinder, injure] (with dat.).

officiosus -a -um [obliging , courteous, attentive; dutiful]; adv. officiose.

officium -i n. [dutiful or respectful action; attendance , service, duty; sense of duty, respect, courtesy; submission, allegiance].

offirmo -are [to make firm , to fasten]; with reflex. or intransit., [to be determined, persevere]; partic. offirmatus -a -um, [firm, resolute].

oleaginus -a -um [of the olive tree].

olearius -a -um [of or for oil].

oleo -ere [to emit an odor; to smell of , smack of]; partic. olens -entis, [smelling; fragrant or stinking].

olim [at that time]; of the past , [formerly, once]; of the future, [hereafter, one day]; with a present, [for a long time now; at times, often].

oliva -ae f. [olive; olive tree; olive wreath; staff of olive wood].

olle obsolete form of ille; q.v.

ollus obsolete form of ille; q.v.

olorinus -a -um [of a swan].

Olympus -i m. [a mountain range between Macedonia and Thessaly , supposed to be the abode of the gods].

omnigenus -a -um [of all kinds].

omnis -e [all , every, whole; of all kinds]; in sing. [each, or the whole of one person or thing].

onerarius -a -um [of burden , freight]; 'iumenta', [beasts of burden]; '(navis) oneraria', [a merchant or transport ship].

onyx -ychis m. and f. [onyx; a casket of onyx].

operio -perire -perui -pertum [to cover , bury, conceal; to close, shut up; to overwhelm]; n. of partic. as subst., opertum -i, [a secret place or secret].

opificina = officina; q.v.

opimus -a -um [rich , fruitful, fertile; lucrative; wealthy; sumptuous, abundant, copious]; of speech, [overloaded]; 'spolia opima', [spoils taken by a general from the enemy's general in single combat].

opinor -ari dep. and opino -are , [to be of opinion, suppose, conjecture]. Partic. opinatus -a -um, in pass. sense, [supposed, fancied].

oppidanus -a -um [of a town]; sometimes [provincial , 'small-town']; m. pl. as subst. [the inhabitants of a town].

opportunus -a -um [opportune , fit, suitable, convenient]; of time, [favorable]; with dat., sometimes, [exposed, liable to]. Adv. opportune, [seasonably, conveniently].

opprobrium -i n. [reproach , scandal, disgrace; a verbal reproach, taunt; a cause of disgrace].

ops opis f.: in nom. sing. , [the goddess of abundance]; other cases opem, opis, ope, [might, power, esp. power to aid; help, support]; plur. opes, [resources, means, wealth].

optimas -atis [one of the best , aristocratic]; m. pl. as subst. optimates, [the aristocratic party, the aristocrats].

opulentia -ae f. [wealth , riches, opulence; the power, greatness of a state]

opus -eris n. [work , labor; work done, a finished work; a building; a literary work or a work of art]; plur. milit. [works, lines, siege-engines]. opus est (or sunt), [there is work, there is need; one needs, it is necessary] (with nom., abl., or genit. of what is needed).

ora -ae f. [edge , rim, boundary]; esp. [coastline, coast]; in gen., [region, clime, country; the people of a district; a hawser, cable reaching to a shore].

oratorius -a -um [of an orator , oratorical]; f. as subst. [oratory]; adv. oratorie.

orbator -oris m. [one who deprives another of children or parents].

orbis -is m. [a circle , ring, disk; orbit, coil]; 'orbis signifer', [the Zodiac]; 'orbis lacteus', [the Milky Way]; 'orbis terrae, terrarum', [the world]. Transf. [rotation, round]; of style, [roundness].

orbitas -atis f. [bereavement , loss of children or parents].

orbo -are [to bereave , deprive of parents or children].

orbus -a -um [deprived of children or parents]; as subst. [an orphan]; in gen. [deprived , destitute].

orchas -adis f. [a species of olive].

orchestra -ae f. [the part of a Roman theater reserved for senators]; meton. [the senate].

Orcus -i m. [Orcus , the infernal regions]. Transf. [the god of the lower world; death].

ordior ordiri orsus dep. [to begin]; esp. [to begin speaking]. N. pl. of partic. as subst. orsa -orum , [beginnings, undertakings]; esp. [words uttered, speech].

Orestes -ae and -is m. [son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra , who killed his mother to avenge his father].

Orontes -is and -ae m. [chief river of Syria].

Orpheus -ei and -eos [a mythical minstrel , husband of Euridice].

ortus (2) -us m.: of heavenly bodies , [rising]; of persons, [origin, birth]. in gen. [origin, source].

os (1) oris n. (1) [the mouth]; hence [voice , talk]; 'uno ore', [unanimously]; in gen. [mouth, opening, source]. (2) [the face, countenance; presence, sight; expression; boldness of expression, impudence; a mask].

Osci -orum m. [an ancient people of Italy].

osculor -ari dep. [to kiss; to caress , make much of].

ostendo -tendere -tendi -tentum and -tensum [to hold out , show, reveal, present]; in speech, [to make plain, declare]. N. of partic. as subst. ostentum -i, [a prodigy, portent].

ostentatio -onis f. [showing , revealing; showing off, display; deceitful show, pretence].

ostento -are [to hold out , present, offer; to show, reveal; to show off, display]; in speech, [to declare, make known].

Ostia -ae f. and Ostia -orum , n. [the harbor and port of Rome, at the mouth of the Tiber]; adj. Ostiensis -e,

ovatio -onis f. [an ovation , a kind of lesser triumph].

Ovidius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; esp. of the poet P. Ovidius Naso , (43 B.C.-17 A.D.).

ovillus -a -um [of sheep].

pacificatio -onis f. [making of peace , pacification].

paean -anis m. (1) [the Healer , a surname of Apollo]. (2) [a hymn, paean].

paeon -onis m. [a metrical foot , consisting of three short syllables and one long].

pagina -ae f. [a page of a letter , book, etc.].

pala -ae f. [a spade; the bezel of a ring].

palaestricus -a -um [of the palaestra , gymnastic]; adv. palaestrice.

palaestrita -ae m. [the superintendent of a palaestra; q.v.].

palam adv. [openly , publicly]; prep., with abl., [in the presence of].

palatum -i n. and palatus -i , m. [the roof of the mouth, palate; taste; critical judgment].

palear -aris n. [the dewlap of an ox].

Pales -is f. [tutelary goddess of herds and shepherds]; adj. Palilis -e; n. pl. as subst. Palilia -ium , [the feast of Pales on the 21st of April].

Palinurus -i m. [the pilot of Aeneas; a promontory on the coast of Lucania].

Pallas -adis and -ados f. [Athene , the Greek goddess of wisdom, identified with Minerva]; adj. Palladius -a -um; n. as subst. Palladium -i, [an image of Pallas].

palma -ae f. (1) [the palm of the hand; a hand; the blade of an oar]. (2) [the palm tree; a date; a palm broom; a palm branch as token of victory]; hence [victory , honor, glory].

palmes -itis m. [a young branch , esp. of a vine].

palmosus -a -um [full of palms].

palmula -ae f. [the blade of an oar].

pampineus -a -um [attached to or consisting of vine tendrils].

Pan Panos m. [the god of flocks , woods, and shepherds].

panicum -i n. [a kind of wild millet].

pannus -i m. [a piece of cloth; garment , rag].

papavereus -a -um [of the poppy].

Papirius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

pappus -i m. [the wooly seed of certain plants].

Parca -ae f. [a goddess of fate]; pl. Parcae , [the three Fates].

parcus -a -um [sparing , thrifty, economical; moderate, sparing]; of things, [scanty, small, meager]. Adv. parce, [sparingly, economically].

parentalis -e [parental , of parents (or ancestors)]; n. pl. as subst., parentalia -ium, [a festival in honer of the dead].

paries -etis m. [a wall , properly the wall of a house].

Paris -idis m. [a Trojan prince who carried off Helen].

paro -are [to set , put; to prepare, provide, furnish, obtain; to buy]. Hence partic. paratus -a -um, [prepared, ready; provided, equipped]; of persons, [skilled]. Adv. parate, [with preparation, readily].

parocha -ae f. [a supplying of necessaries].

parochus -i m. [an officer who looked after travelling ambassadors and magistrates]. Transf. [a host].

parra -ae f. [a bird of ill omen , perhaps owl].

parricidium -i n. [the murder of a parent of any near relative]; polit. , [assassination, treason].

pars partis f. [a part , piece, share; a direction, region; a side, party; an actor's role]; in gen., usually plur., [office, function, duty]; '', [some...others]; 'pro (sua) parte, pro virile parte', [to the best of ones's ability]; 'magna ex parte', [to a great extent]; 'multis partibus', [many times, much]. Adv. partim, [partly]; used like a noun, [some].

parturio -ire [to desire to bring forth , have the pains of labor; to teem with anything, be full of].

partus (2) -us m. [bearing , bringing forth, birth]. Transf. [young, offspring].

parum [too little , not enough] (as adv. and subst.); 'parum habere', [to think too little, be dissatisfied with]. Compar. minus, [less]; sometimes [not, not at all]; 'sin minus', [but if not]. Superl. minime (minume), [in the least degree, very little, least of all]; sometimes [not at all, by no means].

parvulus -a -um [very small]; of age , [young, little].

parvus -a -um [little , small; slight, weak]; of time, [short]; of age, [young]; of value, [poor, insignificant]; n. as subst. [a little]. Compar. minor, [smaller, less]; of time, [shorter]; of age, 'minor (natu)', [younger]; of value, [inferior]. Superl. minimus, [smallest, least]; n. as adv. minimum, [very little]. Rare superl. parvissimus.

pasco pascere pavi pastum (1) transit. [to feed , lead to pasture; to keep, support; to nourish]; also [to give as pasture]. Transf. [to feast, to gratify]. Pass. as middle, [to graze on]; also [to feast upon, delight in]. (2) intransit., of animals, [to graze, browse].

Pasithea -ae and Pasithee -es f. [one of the three Graces].

passus (3) -us m. [a step , stride, pace]; esp. as a measure of length = five Roman feet. Transf. [footstep, track].

pastoralis -e [of shepherds , pastoral].

pastoricius -a -um [of shepherds , pastoral].

pastorius -a -um [of shepherds , pastoral].

Patavium -i n. [a town in north Italy , birthplace of Livy] (now Padua); adj. Patavinus -a -um.

pater -tris m. [father , sire; founder, head]; 'pater familias', or 'familiae', [head of a household]; plur., patres, [forefathers]; also as a title of the senators, 'patres', or 'patres conscripti'; 'pater patriae', [father of his country, a national hero].

paternus -a -um [of a father , paternal; native].

patibulum -i n. [a yoke as an instrument of punishment , a pillory].

patientia -ae f. [endurance , resignation]; in bad sense, [want of spirit].

patior pati passus dep. [to suffer , undergo, experience; to permit, allow]. Hence partic. patiens -entis, [enduring, capable of enduring] with genit.; [patient]; in bad sense, [stubborn]. Adv. patienter.

patricius -a -um [of the patres , patrician, noble]; m. as subst. [a patrician].

patrius -a -um [of a father , fatherly, paternal; hereditary; ancestral; native]. F. as subst. patria -ae, (sc. terra), [fatherland, native land].

patrocinium -i n. [the services of a patron]; esp. [defence in a court of law]; in gen. [defence , protection]; n. plur. patrocinia, [clients].

patronus -i m. [a protector , defender, patron]; esp. [an advocate in a court of law].

patruus (1) -a -um adj. [of an uncle].

paucus -a -um oftener plur. pauci -ae -a , [a few, little]; as subst., m. pl. pauci, [a few, the select few, the oligarchs]; n. pl. pauca, [a few words].

Paulus -i m. [the name of a gens in the gens Aemilia].

pauper -eris [poor]; of things , [scanty, meager].

pausia -ae f. [a species of olive].

pavimentum -i n. [a pavement of tiles , brick, stone, etc.].

pax pacis f. [peace; calm , quiet]; of the gods, [grace, favor]; 'pace tua', [with your good leave].

pecco -are [to make a mistake , go wrong, err or sin]; n. of partic. as subst. peccatum -i, [an error, fault, sin].

pecten -inis m. [a comb; a weaver's comb; a rake; clasped hands; a quill , for striking the strings of the lyre; a shellfish, the scallop].

pecuarius -a -um [of sheep or cattle]; as subst. , m. [a breeder of cattle, grazier]; n. pl. [herds of sheep or cattle].

peculatus -us m. [embezzlement of public money].

peculiaris -e [of one's private property; one's own , special, peculiar]; adv. peculiariter, [specially].

peculium -i n. [small property , savings]; esp. [the savings of slaves and sons].

pecuniarius -a -um [of money , pecuniary].

pecus (1) -oris n. [cattle , herd, flock, esp. of sheep].

pecus (2) -udis f. [a single head of cattle; a beast , animal]; esp. [a sheep].

pedarius -a -um [of a foot]; '(senatores) pedarii' , [senators of inferior rank].

pedester -tris -tre [on foot , pedestrian]; 'copiae', [infantry]; sometimes, [on land]. Transf., [simple, ordinary, prosaic]; of style, [written in prose].

Peleus -ei and -eos m. [king of Thessaly , husband of Thetis, father of Achilles]; Pelides -ae, m. [son or grandson of Peleus].

Pelops -opis m. [the father of Atreus and Thyestes].

penarius -a -um [of or for provisions].

Penates -ium m. pl. [the Penates , Latin deities of the household and family]. Transf. [home, dwelling].

Penelopa -ae and Penelope -es f. [the wife of Ulysses].

penes prep. with acc. [in the possession of , in the power of, belonging to]; 'penes se esse', [to be in one's senses].

penetralis -e (1) [passing through , penetrating]. (2) [inward, internal]. N. as subst. [inner chambers, interior], esp. of a temple.

pensio -onis f. [a weighing out]; hence [paying , payment, day of payment; rent].

Pentheus -ei and -eos m. [a king of Thebes].

peplum -i n. and peplus -i , m. [a robe of state].

per prep. with acc.: of space , [through, along, over]; sometimes [before, in the presence of]; of time, [throughout, during; in the course of, in a time of]; of means or instrument, [through, by, by means of, with, by way of]; of cause, [because of, on account of]; 'per me licet', [you may as far as I'm concerned]; in entreaties, oaths, etc., [in the name of].

percallesco -callescere -callui intransit. [to lose sensibility , become callous]; transit. [to get a good knowledge of].

percelebro -are [to speak of commonly]; pass. [to be much mentioned].

percio -cire -civi -citum and percieo -ciere [to stir up , set in motion]; partic. percitus -a -um, [aroused, excited]; of character, [excitable].

percipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum [to lay hold of , seize; to collect, gather, harvest, gain]; with the senses, [to feel, take in]; mentally, [to learn, grasp, understand]. N. pl. of partic. as subst. percepta -orum, [principles, rules].

percontator (percunct-) -oris m. [an inquirer , asker of questions].

perduim -is -it alternative pres. subj. of perdo; q.v.

peregrinitas -atis f. [the condition of a foreigner or alien; foreign manners].

peregrinus -a -um [foreign , of a foreigner, strange]; m. and f. as subst., [a foreigner, stranger], esp. [a foreign resident in Rome]. Transf., [inexperienced].

pereo -ire -ii and -ivi -itum (often as pass. of perdo) , [to go to waste, be ruined or lost, pass away, perish, die].

perexiguus -a -um [very small , very scanty]; of time, [very short]; Adv. perexigue, [very scantily, very sparingly].

perfero -ferre -tuli -latum [to carry through , bear to the end]; 'se perferre', [to betake oneself]; of news, etc., [to deliver, convey]; of tasks, [to bring to an end]; of trouble, [to bear, suffer, endure]. Hence partic. perferens -entis, [enduring, patient].

perficio -ficere -feci -fectum [to bring to an end , complete, finish, achieve]; of time, [to live through]; of a pupil, [to make perfect]. Hence partic. perfectus -a -um, [perfect, complete, finished]; adv. perfecte.

perfugium -i n. [a place of refuge , shelter].

Pergamum -i n. and Pergamus -i , f., also plur. Pergama -orum, n. [the citadel of Troy; Troy].

Peripateticus -a -um [belonging to the Peripatetic or Aristotelian school of philosophy].

perlego (pellego) -legere -legi -lectum [to survey thoroughly , scan; to read through]; 'senatum', [to call over the roll of senators].

perlito -are [to offer an auspicious sacrifice].

permitto -mittere -misi -missum [to let go]; esp. of weapons , [to hurl]; [to give up, yield, surrender, concede, sacrifice; to make allowance for; to allow, permit].

pero -onis m. [a boot of untanned hide].

peroratio -onis f. [conclusion of a speech , peroration].

persaepe [very often].

perscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum [to write in full; to note down officially , enter; to make over or assign in writing].

Persephone -es f. [Greek name of Proserpina] q.v.

persequor -sequi -secutus dep. [to follow constantly , pursue to the end, hunt out, overtake; to strive after; to imitate; to proceed against an offender, punish, avenge; to accomplish an action, perform, execute; to treat a subject, expound, describe].

Perses (1) -ae and Perseus -ei m. [the last king of Macedonia , defeated by the Roman general Aemilius Paulus in 169 B.C.]; adj. Persicus -a -um.

Persius -i m. A. Persius Flaccus , [a satirist in the reign of Nero].

persolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum [to unloose]; hence [to explain , expound; to pay, pay off, deal out].

persuadeo -suadere -suasi -suasum [to persuade]. (1) [to convince of a fact]; 'sibi persuadere' , [to satisfy oneself, be convinced]. (2) [to persuade, prevail upon a person to do a thing].

pes pedis m. [the foot]; 'pedem referre' , [to return]; 'pedibus', [on foot], also [by land]; 'servus a pedibus', [an attendant, lackey]; 'pedibus ire in sententiam', [to support a proposal]; milit., 'pedibus merere', [to serve in the infantry]; 'pedem conferre', [to fight hand to hand]. Transf. [a foot of a table, chair, etc.; a metrical foot; a measure of length]; 'pes (veli)', [a rope or sheet, attached to the lower edge of a sail].

petaso -onis m. [the forequarter of pork].

petitio -onis f. [an attack , thrust, blow; a request, application; standing for office, candidature]; at law, [a suit, a right of claim, right to bring an action].

Petronius -i m. [name of a Roman gens; esp. of a satirist under Nero].

Phaedra -ae f. [daughter of Minos , wife of Theseus].

Phaedrus -i m. [a freedman of Augustus , author of Latin fables].

Phaethon -ontis m. [the son of Helios , killed trying to drive the chariot of his father].

phalanx -angis f. [an array of soldiers in close formation].

Phalaris -idis m. [a tyrant of Agrigentum].

Phalerum -i n. [the oldest port of Athens].

pharmacopola (-es) -ae m. [a seller of drugs; a quack].

Pharus (-os) -i f. , rarely m. [an island off Alexandria, with a lighthouse]; hence in gen., [a lighthouse].

Philippus -i m. [the name of several kings of Macedon]; adj. Philippeus and Philippicus -a -um; f. as subst. Philippica -ae , [one of the speeches of Demosthenes against Alexander, or of Cicero against Antony].

philologia -ae f. [love of learning , study of literature].

Philomela -ae f. [the daughter of Pandion , turned into a nightingale].

philyra -ae f. [the inner bark of the linden tree].

Phocis -idis f. [a district in the north of Greece]; adj. Phoceus -a -um.

Phoebe -es f. [the sister of Phoebus , the Moon goddess, Diana].

Phoebigena -ae m. [the son of Phoebus , Aesculapius].

Phoebus -i m. [Apollo , the sun god]; hence subst. Phoebas -adis, f. [a priestess of Phoebus, a prophetess]; adj. Phoebeius and Phoebeus -a -um, [of Phoebus].

phoenix -icis m. [the phoenix , a fabulous bird of Arabia].

phonascus -i m. [a teacher of music].

Phrixus -i m. [a brother of Helle].

Phryges -um m. pl. [the Phrygians]; sing. Phryx -ygis; Phrygia -ae , f. [the country of the Phrygians in Asia Minor]; adj. Phrygius -a -um, [Phrygian]; poet., [Trojan].

phylarchus -i m. [the head of a tribe , an emir].

physicus -a -um [relating to physics , physical]; m. as subst. [a scientist]; n. pl. physica -orum, [physics]; adv. physice, [in the manner of scientists].

piaculum -i n. [a means of expiating or appeasing; sacrifice; remedy; punishment; a victim; an act needing expiation , a sin, crime].

piamen -inis n. [means of atonement or expiation].

piceus -a -um [of pitch; pitch-black].

pictura -ae f. [the art of painting; a painting , picture]; 'pictura textilis', [embroidery].

pigmentarius -a -um [a seller of paints and unguents].

pigmentum -i n. [paint , pigment]; of style, [ornament, decoration].

pignus -noris and -neris n. [a pledge , pawn, security; a wager, bet, stake; a token, assurance, proof]; in plur. [persons as pledges of love].

pila (3) -ae f. [a ball; a game of ball].

pilo -are [to deprive of hair].

pilum -i n. [the heavy javelin of the Roman infantry].

pilus (2) -i m. [a division of the triarii in the Roman army]; 'primus pilus' , [the chief centurion of the triarii and of the legion].

Pindarus -i m. [a lyric poet of Thebes].

pinetum -i n. [a grove of pines].

pineus -a -um [made of pine wood or deal].

pinna (1) -ae f. [a feather; a feathered arrow; a wing; a battlement along the top of a wall].

pinna (2) (pina) -ae f. [a species of mussel].

pinnirapus -i m. [a crestsnatcher , i.e. a kind of gladiator].

pinus -i and -us f. [a fir or pine; anything made of pine wood , e.g. a torch, oar, ship].

Piraeeus and Piraeus -i m. [the Piraeus , the main port of Athens].

piscatorius -a -um [of fishermen or fishing].

piscinarius -i m. [one fond of fish ponds].

pituitosus -a -um [full of phlegm].

placamen -inis n. [means of appeasing].

placamentum -i n. [means of appeasing].

plagosus -a -um [fond of flogging].

planctus -us m. [beating]; esp. [beating of the breast , lamentation].

plango plangere planxi planctum [to beat , strike, esp. noisily; to strike the breast, head, etc., as a sign of grief]; hence plangere and pass. plangi, [to bewail].

plangor -oris m. [loud striking or beating]; esp. [beating of the head and breast , loud lamentations].

planta -ae f. (1) [a green twig , cutting, graft; a plant]. (2) [the sole of the foot].

planus (1) -a -um [even , flat]; n. as subst. [a plain, level ground]; 'de plano', [offhand, easily]. Transf. [plain, clear, intelligible]. Adv. plane, [distinctly, intelligibly; wholly, quite, thoroughly]; in answers, [certainly].

Plato (-on) -onis m. [the Greek philosopher , disciple of Socrates].

plausibilis -e [worthy of applause].

plausus -us m. [a noise of clapping; approbation , applause].

plebeius -a -um [of the plebs or people , plebeian; common, low, mean].

plebicola -ae m. [a friend of the common people].

plebiscitum -i n. [a decree of the people].

plectrum -i n. [a stick with which the strings of a stringed instrument were struck; a quill]. Transf. [the lyre; lyric poetry].

plenus -a -um [full , full of] (with genit. or abl.); [complete; plump, thick; pregnant; filled, satisfied; well-stocked, rich]; of age, [mature]; of the voice, [strong, loud]; of style, [full, copious]. Adv. plene, [fully, completely].

Plinius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; esp. of C. Plinius Secundus (Maior , the Elder), [author of a Natural History], and C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus (Iunior, the Younger), [author of letters, etc.].

plumbeus -a -um [leaden , of lead]. Transf. [dull, stupid; heavy, oppressive; bad].

plumeus -a -um [downy , of fine feathers].

Pluto (-on) -onis m. [the king of the underworld]; adj. Plutonius -a -um.

pluvialis -e [of or from rain; bringing rain].

pluvius -a -um [of or from rain , bringing rain]; f. as subst. pluvia -ae, [rain].

poeticus -a -um [poetical]; f. as subst. poetica -ae and poetice -es , [the art of poetry]; adv. poetice.

polio -ire [to polish , file, make smooth]; esp. [to cover with white, whiten; to adorn, finish off]. Hence partic. politus -a -um, [polished, refined, accomplished]; adv. polite.

politia -ae acc. -an , f. [the Republic of Plato].

politicus -a -um [of the state , political].

polliceor -ceri -citus dep. [to offer , promise]; perf. partic. in pass. sense, pollicitus -a -um, [promised]. N. as subst. [a promise].

pollicitatio -onis f. [an offer , promise].

polluceo -lucere -luxi -luctum [to offer , serve up].

Pollux -ucis m. [the twin brother of Castor].

polus -i m. [the end of an axis , a pole; the sky, heaven].

Polyhymnia -ae f. [one of the Muses].

pomarius -a -um [of fruit]; m. as subst. [a fruiterer]; n. as subst. , [a fruit garden, orchard].

pomerium or pomoerium -i n. [a clear space beside the walls of a town].

Pompeii -orum m. pl. [a town in Campania , destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius]; adj. Pompeianus -a -um.

Pompeius (trisyl.) or Pompeius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; esp. of Cn. Pompeius , [Pompey the Great (106-48 B.C.)]; adj. Pompeianus -a -um, [belonging to Pompey].

Pompilius -a -um [name of a Roman gens]; esp. of Numa Pompilius , [second king of Rome].

pomum -i n. [any kind of fruit; a fruit tree].

pono ponere posui (posivi) positum (postum) [to lay , put, place, set; to put in place, settle; to put aside, lay down, discard; to lay to rest, lay out for burial]; milit. [to post, station]; of money, etc. [to store, deposit, invest; to stake, wager]; of food, [to put on table, to serve]; of buildings, [to found, set up]; of laws, etc. [to establish, ordain]; of persons, [to appoint]; of an artist, [to represent, picture]; [to reckon, count, regard; to lay down, assert, cite]. Hence partic. positus -a -um, [in place]; 'nix', [fallen snow]; of places, [situated].

pons pontis m. [a bridge , gangway; the deck of a ship].

pontifex -ficis m. [a pontiff , member of a Roman guild of priests].

pontificatus -us m. [the office of pontiff].

Pontius -a -um [name of a Roman (originally Samnite) gens].

Pontus -i m. [the Black Sea]; also [the country on the shores of the Black Sea]; adj. Ponticus -a -um.

popularis -e (1) [belonging to the same people or country , native]; as subst. [fellow countryman, adherent, partner]. (2) [of the people or state; popular; democratic]; m. pl. as subst. [the popular party, the democrats]. Adv. populariter, [after the manner of the people, vulgarly; in a popular manner, like a demagogue].

populeus -a -um [of the poplar].

populus (1) -i m. [a people , political community, nation]; as a section of the community, [the people]; in gen. [the people, the public]; hence [any crowd, host, multitude].

porcinus -a -um [of a swine or hog].

Porcius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

porricio -ricere -rectum [to offer as a sacrifice].

porrigo (1) -rigere -rexi -rectum [to stretch out , extend; to offer, grant]; pass. porrigi, [to lie stretched out]; partic. porrectus -a -um, [stretched out, extended, long].

portendo -tendere -tendi -tentum [to indicate , predict, presage]. Hence n. of partic. as subst. portentum -i, [a prodigy, portent; a wonderful story, marvelous tale; a monster, monstrosity].

porticus -us f. [a portico , colonnade, arcade, gallery]. Transf. [the Stoic school of philosophers].

portitor (1) -oris m. [a customs officer].

posco poscere poposci [to ask earnestly , request, call upon]; poscimur, [we are asked to sing]; esp. [to demand for punishment, or challenge to fight]; of things, [to demand, require].

possido -sidere -sedi -sessum [to take possession of , occupy].

possum posse potui [to be able; one may , one can; to avail, have influence]. Hence partic. potens -entis, [able, powerful, capable; influential, efficacious]; with genit. [master of]. Adv. potenter, [strongly, efficaciously; according to one's power].

post (older poste) Adv. [behind , in the rear]; of time, [afterwards]; 'multo post', [much later]. Prep. with acc. [behind]; of time, [after]; in rank, etc. [next after].

posterus (poster) -a -um [subsequent , following, next, future]; 'in posterum', [for the next day or for the future]; m. pl. as subst., [posterity]. Compar. posterior -us, [next, later; inferior, worse]; n. acc. as adv., posterius, [later]. Superl. postremus -a -um, [hind-most, last; lowest, worst]. N. abl. as adv., postremo, [at last]; n. acc. postremum, [for the last time]; 'ad postremum', [at last]. Superl. postumus -a -um, [the last, last-born (esp. of children born after their father's death)].

postfero -ferre [to consider of less account].

posthabeo -ere -ui -itum [to consider of less account , put after].

postmeridianus -a -um [of the afternoon].

postpono -ponere -posui -positum [to consider of less account , put after].

postulo -are [to claim , demand, request]; legal, [to demand a writ, or to impeach, accuse a person]; of things, [to demand, require]. N. of partic. as subst. postulatum -i, [a demand].

potestas -atis f. [power , ability, control]. Esp. [political supremacy, dominion; the authority of a magistrate, office, command]; concr. [an officer, magistrate]. Transf. [opportunity, possibility, occasion]; 'facere potestatem', [to give opportunity or permission]; 'potestas est', [it is possible].

potio (2) -ire [to put in the power of].

potior (1) -iri , dep. [to get possession of, to obtain; to possess, be master of].

potis pote; [able , capable]; 'potis (or pote) est', [can, is able (or possible)]. Compar. potior -us, [preferable, better]; n. acc. as adv. potius, [rather, preferably]. Superl. potissimus -a -um, [best of all, chief, principal]; n. as adv. potissimum, [chiefly, above all].

poto potare potavi potatum and potum [to drink]; esp. [to drink heavily]; of things , [to absorb]. Hence partic. potus -a -um: pass. [drunk, drained]; act. [having drunk, drunken].

prae Adv. [before , in front]; 'prae quam', [in comparison with]. Prep. with abl. [before]; 'prae se ferre', [to show, exhibit; in comparison with; on account of, because of].

praebeo -bere -bui -bitum [to offer , hold out; to provide, supply, allow]; with reflex. [to present or show oneself in a certain character, behave as]

praecaveo -cavere -cavi -cautum intransit. [to take precautions , be on one's guard]; transit. [to beware of, guard against beforehand].

praeceps -cipitis: of motion [headlong , fast-falling, quick]; of character, [hasty, rash, blind]; of places, [steep, precipitous]; hence, [dangerous]. N. as subst. [a steep place, precipice; danger]; as adv. [headlong].

praecido -cidere -cidi -cisum [to cut short , lop, mutilate]; 'ancoras', [to cut the cables]; of speech, 'brevi praecidam', [I will put it briefly]. Hence partic. praecisus -a -um, [broken off]; of places, [steep, precipitous]; of speech, [brief]. Adv. praecise, [briefly, in few words; absolutely, decidedly].

praecipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum [to take before , receive in advance]; 'iter', [to get the start]; mentally, [to anticipate]; [to instruct, advise, warn]. N. of partic. as subst. praeceptum -i, [a command, rule, injunction].

praeconius -a -um [belonging to a praeco or crier]. N. as subst. praeconium -i , [the office of a crier]; hence, [publishing, making known; a public commendation].

praecordia -orum n. pl. [the midriff , diaphragm; the stomach; the breast, heart (as seat of passion)].

praecurro -currere -cucurri and -curri -cursum [to run before , go on ahead]; in time, [to precede]; in quality, [to surpass]. N. pl. of partic. as subst. praecurrentia -ium, [antecedents].

praecursio -onis f. [going before , running ahead]; rhet. [preparation of the hearer].

praeda -ae f. [spoils of war , plunder, booty]; of animals, [prey]; in gen., [plunder, gain].

praediator -oris m. [a buyer of landed estates].

praediatorius -a -um [relating to the sale of land].

praedico (2) -dicere -dixi -dictum [to say or name beforehand; to predict , foretell, prophesy; to warn, admonish, instruct]. Hence n. of partic. as subst. praedictum -i, [a prophecy, prediction; an order, command; a previous agreement].

praedor -ari dep. [to plunder , rob; carry off].

praefatio -onis f. [saying beforehand; a religious or legal form of words , formula; a preface, introduction].

praefectura -ae f. [the office of superintendent]; esp. [a subordinate provincial command]. Transf. [a town or district governed by a praefectus].

praeficio -ficere -feci -fectum [to set over , appoint as superintendent]. M. of partic. as subst. praefectus -i, [an overseer, superintendent, civil or military officer]; 'praefectus urbis', [governor of the city (Rome)].

praefloro -are [to deprive of blossoms]; fig. [to diminish , lessen].

praefodio -fodere -fodi -fossum [to dig in front of; to bury previously].

praefor -fari -fatus dep. [to speak beforehand] , esp. of prayers; 'divos', [to invoke].

praefringo -fringere -fregi -fractum [to break off in front]; partic. praefractus -a -um , of style, [abrupt, disconnected]; of character, [stern, harsh]; adv. praefracte.

praemando -are [to order beforehand]; n. pl. of partic. as subst. praemandata -orum , [a warrant of arrest].

praemordeo -mordere -mordi -morsum [to bite off; to pilfer].

praemunitio -onis f. [fortifying beforehand]; rhet. [preparation of one's hearers].

praepes -petis [rapidly flying , swift]; m. and f. as subst. [a bird], esp. [a bird of good omen].

praepono -ponere -posui -positum [to put before; to put over , set over as commander, etc.; to prefer]. Hence m. of partic. as subst. praepositus -i, [a commander].

praeripio -ripere -ripui -reptum [to snatch before somebody else; to carry off before the time; to anticipate , forestall].

praerodo -rodere -rodi -rosum [to gnaw off , bite through].

praerumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum [to break off in front]. Hence partic. praeruptus -a -um , [broken off]; of places, [steep, precipitous]; of character, [headstrong, hasty].

praesagio -ire [to presage , forebode, have a presentiment of].

praesentia -ae f. [presence]; 'animi' , [presence of mind]; 'in praesentia', [for the present]; sometimes [power, effect].

praesentio -sentire -sensi -sensum [to feel beforehand , have a presentiment of].

praesideo -sidere -sedi -sessum [to sit before; to watch over , protect, guard; to preside over, manage, direct]. M. of partic. as subst., praesidens, -entis, [a president, ruler].

praesto (2) -stare -stiti -stitum (1) [to stand before; to be outstanding , surpass, excel]; impers., praestat, [it is better, preferable]. (2) transit. [to become surety for, answer for, be responsible for]. Transf. [to perform, execute, fulfil; to show, manifest, exhibit; to offer, present]; with se and acc. [to show oneself, behave as]. Hence partic. praestans -antis, [excellent, distinguished, eminent].

praetendo -tendere -tendi -tentum [to stretch or hold out]; pass. praetendi , of places, [to lie before or in front]. Transf. [to hold out as a pretext, allege in excuse].

praetereo -ire -ivi and oftener -ii -itum [to go by , pass by]. Transf., [to escape the notice of a person; to pass by, pass over, omit; to surpass, outstrip; to transgress]. Hence partic. praeteritus -a -um, [past, gone by].

praetexo -texere -texui -textum [to weave in front , form a border; to adorn; to cover, conceal; to put forward as a pretext]. Hence partic. praetextus -a -um, [bordered], esp. of the toga. F. as subst. praetexta -ae, f. [a toga bordered with purple], worn by magistrates and boys; also 'praetexta (fabula)', [a tragedy with Roman characters]. N. as subst. praetextum -i, [a pretence, pretext].

praetorius -a -um (1) [relating to the praetor , praetorian]. (2) [relating to any general or commander]; 'praetoria navis', [flagship]; 'cohors', [the general's bodyguard]. As subst.: m. praetorius -i, [an ex-praetor or man of praetorian rank]; n. praetorium -i, [the official residence of the praetor or propraetor; a palace; also, the headquarters in a Roman camp].

praetura -ae f. [the office of praetor].

praevaricator -oris m. [an advocate guilty of collusion].

praevaricor -ari dep. , of an advocate, [to have a secret understanding with the other side, to be guilty of collusion].

praevenio -venire -veni -ventum [to come before , anticipate, get the start of].

praeverto (praevorto) -vertere -verti -versum and praevertor -verti -versus sum of preference , [to put first, turn first to]; of early action, [to anticipate, outstrip, forestall; to surprise, preoccupy].

pratensis -e [of a meadow].

Praxiteles -is and -i m. [a sculptor of Athens].

preciae -arum f. pl. [a kind of vine].

prehendo prehendere prehendi prehensum and prendo prendere prendi prensum [to lay hold of , seize, grasp; to catch, detain, arrest; to take in], mentally or by the senses.

prehenso and prenso -are [to lay hold of , clutch at]. Transf. [to canvass for votes].

premo premere pressi pressum [to press; to step on , lie on; to hug, keep close to; to press hard, squeeze; to pursue closely, press upon; to press down, strike down; to disparage, slander; to press together, close; to check, curb]. Hence partic. pressus -a -um, [subdued, measured]; of style, [compressed, concise]. Adv. presse, [accurately, precisely, distinctly]; of style, [briefly, concisely].

prensatio -onis f. [canvassing for office].

pressio -onis f. [leverage or means of leverage].

pretiosus -a -um [costly , precious, dear]; of persons, [extravagant]. Adv. pretiose.

Priamus -i m. [the last king of Troy]; adj. Priameius -a -um.

Priapus -i m. [the god of gardens and vineyards].

primani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the first legion].

primipilaris -is m. [the centurion of the first maniple of the triarii , the chief centurion of the legion].

primordium -i n. [first beginning , origin]; plur. often = [atoms].

primoris -e [first , foremost; at the tip]; 'primoribus labris', [superficially]; of rank, [first, most distinguished].

princeps -cipis adj. [first , foremost]. As subst. [leader]; polit., often as a title of the Roman emperor; milit., plur., principes, [the second line in a Roman army, between the triarii and hastati].

principalis -e (1) [first] , in time or rank. (2) [of a prince]. (3) [of the principia in a Roman camp].

prior prius genit. -oris , compar. adj. [fore, former], of place or time; [higher in importance]; m. pl. as subst. [ancestors]. N. acc. as adv., prius, [before, previously; formerly; sooner, rather]; prius quam, or priusquam, conj., [before]. Superl. primus -a -um, [first, foremost], of place or time; of rank, etc. [first, most distinguished]; '(partes) primae', [the leading part]; 'in primis', [especially]. N. acc. as adv., primum, [at first or for the first time]. N. abl. primo, [at first].

priscus -a -um [ancient , antique; of the old school, venerable; former, previous]. Adv. prisce, [in the old-fashioned way].

privus -a -um [single , every]; distributively, [one each; particular, special, one's own]; with genit. [deprived of].

pro (1) prep. with abl. , [before, in front of; for, on behalf of, in favor of; in place of; like, as good as]; 'se pro cive gerere', [to behave as a citizen]; [as a reward for; in proportion to, according to, by virtue of]; 'pro virili parte', [to the best of one's ability]; 'pro eo quantum', [in proportion as].

procedo -cedere -cessi -cessum [to go ahead , proceed, advance, continue; to come out, go out]; of actions, etc. [to turn out, result]; sometimes [to turn out well, to prosper].

Procne (Progne) -es f. [wife of Tereus , changed into a swallow].

proconsul -sulis m. (also pro consule) , [a proconsul, one who serves as a consul, in command of any army, or as governor of a province].

proconsulatus -us m. [the office of proconsul].

procrastino -are [to put off till tomorrow , defer].

procuratio -onis f. [taking care , management, administration]. Esp. (1) [the office of imperial procurator]. (2) [an attempt to propitiate a deity].

procuro -are [to take care of , look after; to manage, administer; to be a procurator; to sacrifice in order to avert evil].

procurro -currere -curri and -cucurri -cursum [to run forward]; of places , [to project, jut out].

prodico -dicere -dixi -dictum [to put off].

produco -ducere -duxi -ductum [to bring forward , bring out, extend; to produce, bring up, advance, promote; to divulge, bring to light]; in pronunciation, [to lengthen out, make long]; in time, [to prolong, continue]; also [to put off, postpone]. Hence partic. productus -a -um, [extended, lengthened, prolonged]; of syllables, [pronounced long]; n. pl. as subst., [preferable things] (in the Stoic philosophy). Adv. producte, [long (of pronunciation)].

profero -ferre -tuli -latum (1) [to bring forth , bring forward, offer to publish, bring to light, reveal; to produce, cite, mention]. (2) [to advance, bring forward, impel]. (3) [to enlarge, extend]; in time, [to lengthen]; also [to put off, postpone].

professio -onis f. [declaration , profession]. Transf. [a register of persons and property; an occupation, art, profession].

proficio -ficere -feci -fectum: of persons [to make progress , advance]; of things, [to be of use, assist, help].

profiteor -fiteri -fessus dep. [to acknowledge , confess; to profess or declare oneself anything; to profess a science, art, etc.; to make any public statement; to offer, promise].

profluo -fluere -fluxi -fluctum [to flow forth; to proceed]. Hence partic. profluens -entis , [flowing]; f. as subst. (sc. aqua), [running water]; of style, [flowing, fluent]. Adv. profluenter.

progenies -ei f. [descent , lineage; progeny, offspring, descendants].

progenitor -oris m. [founder of a family , ancestor].

proicio -icere -ieci -iectum [to throw forth; to fling forward; to put forward , cause to project (pass., to project); to fling out, throw away, abandon; to defer, put off]. Hence partic. proiectus -a -um, [jutting forward, prominent; stretched out, prostrate]; hence [abject, contemptible, downcast]; with ad, [addicted to].

prolatio -onis f. [bringing forward , mentioning; an extension; putting off, deferring].

prolato -are [extend , enlarge, lengthen; to put off, defer].

proles -is f. [offspring , descendants, posterity; the young men of a race]; of plants, [fruit].

proletarius -i m. [a citizen of the lowest class , serving the state only by begetting children].

proluo -luere -lui -lutum [to wash away or off; to wash clean].

promereo -ere -ui -itum and promereor -eri -itus dep. [to deserve]; n. of partic. as subst. promeritum -i , [deserts, merit].

promitto -mittere -misi -missum [to let go forward , send forth; to let grow; to promise, undertake]. Hence partic. promissus -a -um, [let grow, long, hanging down]. N. of partic. as subst. promissum -i, [a promise].

promo promere prompsi promptum [to bring out , produce; to bring forward, disclose, express]. Hence partic. promptus -a -um, [ready, at hand; easy, visible, apparent]; of persons, [prepared, resolute, prompt]. Adv. prompte.

pronuba -ae f. (1) [a matron attending a bride]. (2) [epithet of Juno , as the goddess presiding over marriage].

pronuntiatio -onis f. [public declaration; the decision of a judge , a judgment]; in logic, [a proposition]; in rhetoric, [delivery].

pronuntio -are [to make publicly known , declare]; in the senate, [to announce a resolution]; at a sale, [to make a statement as to defects]; rhet. [to declaim, recite, deliver]. N. of partic. as subst. pronuntiatum -i, in logic, [a proposition].

propago (2) -inis f. [a layer , slip or shoot] (esp. of the vine); of men and animals, [offspring, race, posterity].

prope adv. and prep.; compar. propius; superl. proxime. Adv. [near] , in space or time; [nearly]; propius, [more nearly, more closely]; proxime, of time, [just now]. Prep. with acc. [near to], in space or time; in gen. [approximating to, not far from].

Propertius -i m. Sex. Aurelius , [a poet of the Augustan age].

propono -ponere -posui -positum [to put on view , expose, display; to publish, relate, tell; to propose, promise, offer as a reward or hold over as a threat; to imagine, put before the mind; to propose to oneself, purpose, intend]. N. of partic. as subst. propositum -i, [a design, purpose; the subject or theme of a discourse; the first premise of a syllogism].

propositio -onis f. [a purpose; the subject of a discourse]; in logic , [the first proposition of a syllogism].

propter Adv. [near , close by]. Prep. with acc. [near; on account of, because of].

propulso -are [to drive back , repel, ward off].

prora -ae f. [the prow , bow of a ship]; poet. [a ship].

prorogatio -onis f. [prolongation of a term of office; deferring].

prorogo -are [to prolong; to defer , put off].

proscaenium -i n. [the stage of a theater].

proscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum [to make publicly known , publish; to offer publicly for sale or hire, advertise; to confiscate; to proscribe, outlaw].

proscriptio -onis f. [an advertisement of sale; a proscription , outlawry].

proseco -secare -secui -sectum [to cut off; to plow up]. N. of partic. as subst. prosectum -i , [part of a victim cut out to be offered to a god; the entrails].

prosequor -sequi -secutus dep. [to follow or accompany out , to 'see off']; in hostile sense, [to attack, pursue]; in gen. [to attend; to go on with, continue; to imitate].

Proserpina -ae f. [the daughter of Ceres , carried off by Pluto to the lower world].

proseucha -ae f. [a (Jewish) house of prayer , a conventicle].

protelum -i n. [a team of oxen; a series , succession].

protervus -a -um [bold , impudent]; in milder sense, [pert]; of things, [violent]. Adv. proterve.

Proteus -ei and -eos m. [a god of the sea , with the power of changing himself into different shapes].

protinus (protenus) adv. [forward , further on]; of time, [continuously or immediately].

protrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum [to push forward , thrust out; to put off, defer].

provenio -venire -veni -ventum [to come on , appear]; of grain, [to come up, grow]; of events, [to result, come about]; esp. [to turn out well, succeed].

provideo -videre -vidi -visum [to look forward to , see at a distance; to see beforehand, foresee; to take precautions for or against, provide for, make preparations for]. Hence partic. providens -entis, [provident, prudent]; adv. providenter. N. abl. of perf. partic. proviso, [with forethought].

provincia -ae f. [employment , sphere of duty, office, esp. that of a magistrate]. Transf. [a country governed by a Roman magistrate, a province].

provincialis -e [of a province]; m. as subst. , esp. plur., [inhabitants of a province, provincials].

provocator -oris m. [a challenger; a kind of gladiator].

prunitius -a -um [of plum tree wood].

psecas -adis f. [an anointer of hair].

psithia (vitis) -ae f. [a kind of Greek vine].

psychomantium or -eum -i n. [a place of necromancy].

ptisanarium -i n. [a decoction of crushed barley or rice].

pubens -entis of plants , [in full growth, luxuriant].

pubertas -atis f. [puberty , the age of maturity; signs of puberty, growth of hair, etc.].

pubes (1) and puber -eris [arrived at the age of puberty , adult, ripe]; m. pl. as subst. puberes -um, [the men, adult male population].

pubes (2) -is f. [the signs of puberty , growth of hair, etc.; the youth, adult male population].

publicanus -a -um [of the farming of the public taxes]; m. as subst. [a farmer of the Roman taxes].

publicus -a -um [belonging to the people , public]; 'res publica' or 'respublica', [the state]. Transf. [universal, general; common; ordinary]. M. as subst. publicus -i, [a state official]; n. publicum -i, [public territory; the public revenue, the treasury; an open place, the open street]. Adv. publice, [for the people, publicly, at the public expense; all together].

pudeo -ere [to be ashamed]; usually 3rd person , [to cause shame]; often impers. pudet; 'te huius templi pudet', [you are ashamed of]. Hence gerundive pudendus -a -um, [shameful, disgraceful]. Partic. pudens -entis, [modest, shamefaced]; adv. pudenter, [modestly, bashfully].

pudor -oris m. [feeling of shame , bashfulness, decency, honor; chastity, purity; that which causes shame, a disgrace].

puerperus -a -um [of childbirth]; f. as subst. [a woman in labor].

pugnax -acis [fond of fighting , combative; obstinate, contentious]. Adv. pugnaciter.

pullarius -i m. [feeder of sacred chickens].

pulvereus -a -um [full of dust , dusty].

pulverulentus -a -um [full of dust , dusty].

pulvinar -aris n. [a couch , esp. one carrying images of the gods at the lectisternium (q.v.)].

pulvinus -i m. [pillow , cushion; a seat of honor].

pulvis -eris m. (rarely f.) [dust , powder]. Transf. [arena, scene of action]; 'sine pulvere palma', [prize without effort].

pumiceus -a -um [made of pumice-stone].

pungo pungere pupugi punctum [to prick , puncture, stab; to touch, move, penetrate; to sting, vex, annoy]. N. of partic. as subst. punctum -i, [a prick, a little hole, small puncture; a point, spot]. Hence [a vote; a moment of time]; in speech, etc., [a short clause, section].

pupilla -ae f. (1) [an orphan girl , ward, minor]. (2) [the pupil of the eye].

pupillaris -e [of an orphan or ward].

puppis -is f. [the poop or stern of a vessel]; poet. [the whole ship].

pupula -ae f. [the pupil of the eye].

purgamen -inis n. (1) [sweepings , filth]. (2) [a means of purgation].

purgo -are (1) [to clean , cleanse, purify]. Hence [to excuse, defend, justify; to allege in defence]. (2) [to clear away, wash off].

purpuratus -a -um [clad in purple]. M. as subst. [a man of high rank , a courtier].

purus -a -um [clean , pure, cleared]. Transf. [without addition, simple, plain]; morally, [upright, pure]; of style, [pure, faultless]; legally, [without conditions, absolute]. N. as subst. [the clear sky]. Adv. pure and poet. puriter, [purely, cleanly]; of style, [faultlessly].

puteal -alis n. [stone curb round the mouth of a well or sacred place].

putealis -e [of a well].

putidus -a -um [rotten , stinking, foul]; of style, [affected, in bad taste]; adv. putide, [affectedly].

puto -are [to cleanse , clear]; of trees, [to lop]. Transf. [to clear up, settle], esp. of accounts; hence, [to weigh up, ponder, reckon, estimate; to consider, believe, think]; parenthetically, 'puto' or 'ut puto', [I suppose].

Pygmaei -orum m. pl. [the Pygmies , a race of dwarfs in Africa].

Pyrrhus -i m. (1) [son of Achilles]. (2) [a king of Epirus , enemy of the Romans].

Pythagoras -ae m. [Greek philosopher of Samos (about 540 B.C.)].

Pytho -us f. [the old name of Delphi]; adj. Pythicus , Pythius -a -um, [Delphic, relating to Apollo]; f. as subst. [the priestess of Apollo]; n. pl. [the Pythian games, celebrated every fourth year in honor of Apollo].

qua abl. f. of qui , as adv.: relat., [by which way, where]; also [whereby] or [as far as]; qua...qua, [partly...partly]; interrog., [by what way?, how?]; indef., [in any way, at all].

quadra -ae f. [a square]; used of any square object or square piece.

quadrans -antis m. [a fourth part , quarter]; as a coin, [the fourth part of an as].

quadrantarius -a -um [of a quarter]; of price , [costing a quarter of an as].

quadriduum (quatriduum) -i n. [a space of four days].

quadriennium -i n. [a period of four years].

quadrigae -arum f. pl. [a team of four horses abreast] , esp. drawing a chariot.

quadrigarius -a -um [of a racing charioteer].

quadrigatus -a -um [stamped with the figure of a four-horse chariot].

quadrigulae -arum f. pl. [a little team of four horses].

quadriiugis -e [in a team of four].

quadriiugus -a -um [in or with a team of four].

quadringenarius -a -um [of four hundred each].

quadriremis -e [with four banks of oars]; f. as subst. [a quadrireme].

quadro -are transit. [to make square; to join properly together]; intransit. [to be square; to fit exactly , to suit]; esp. of accounts, [to agree]. Partic. quadratus -a -um, [squared, square]; n. as subst. [a square].

quaestio -onis f. [seeking , searching; inquiry, investigation]; esp. [judicial inquiry]; 'quaestiones perpetuae', [standing courts of justice].

quaestor -oris m. [one of the quaestors , magistrates in Rome, occupied with matters of law and finance].

quaestuosus -a -um [profitable; fond of gain; having gained much , rich].

quaestura -ae f. [the office of quaestor , quaestorship].

quaestus -us m. [gaining , getting, profit; a source of profit, occupation, business].

qualis -e interrog. [of what kind?]; relat. (with or without antecedent talis) , [of the kind that, such as]; indef. [having some quality or other]. Adv. qualiter, [as, just as].

qualiscumque (-cunque) qualecumque relat. [of whatever kind]; indef. , [any whatever].

qualislibet qualelibet , [of what sort you will].

quam adv. [how , in what way]; interrog. [how much? how?]; exclam. [how!] relat. of correspondence, [as] (often with tam); with superl. adj. or adv., [as...possible] (with or without possum); 'quam primum', [as soon as possible]; of comparison, [than, as].

quamquam (quanquam) [although , though]; at the beginning of a sentence, [nevertheless, and yet].

quandocumque (-cunque) relat. [whenever , as often as]; indef. [at some time or other].

quandoque relat. [whenever , as often as]; indef. [at some time or other].

quantus -a -um interrog. [how great?]; exclam. [how great!]; relat. (with or without tantus) , [(as great) as]; 'quantus quantus', [however great]. N. as subst. quantum -i: interrog. [how much?]; exclam. [how much!]; relat. [as much as]; 'quantum in me est', [as far as in me lies]. Neuter in genit. (or locative) of price, quanti, [for how much, at what price]; in abl. quanto, [by how much], with compar. adj. or adv.

quartadecumani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the fourteenth legion].

quartanus -a -um [of the fourth]; f. as subst. (sc. febris) , [a quartan fever]; m. pl. as subst. [the soldiers of the fourth legion].

quartarius -i m. [the fourth part of a sextarius].

quasi [as if , just as], esp. in hypothetical comparisons; also with descriptions, [as it were, a sort of]; with numerals, [about].

quattuorviratus -us m. [the office of the quattuorviri].

quattuorviri -orum m. pl. [a board of four magistrates].

querceus -a -um [oaken , of oak].

quercus -us f. [the oak]; sometimes [a crown of oak leaves].

quernus -a -um [of oak , oaken].

queror queri questus dep. [to complain , lament, bewail]; of animals, [to make a plaintive sound].

querquetulanus -a -um [of an oak forest].

qui (1) quae quod: interrog. adj. [which? what? what kind of?]; exclam. , [what!]; indef. (with f. quae or qua) [any, some]; relat. [who, which, what, that]. Acc. n. sing. quod, as adv.: 'quod sciam', [as far as I know]. Abl. quo, with comparatives: 'quo celerius, eo melius', [the faster the better].

quidam quaedam quoddam (subst. quiddam) [a certain person or thing] (known but not necessarily named). Transf. [a kind of].

quietus -a -um [resting; sleeping; at peace , undisturbed, neutral]; of character, [quiet, calm]. Adv. quiete.

quindecimprimi -orum m. pl. [the fifteen senators of a municipium].

quindecimvir -i m. [one of a board of fifteen magistrates].

quindecimviralis -e [of the quindecimviri].

quinquagesimus (-ensimus) -a -um [fiftieth]; f. as subst. [(a tax of) a fiftieth part].

quinquatrus -uum f. pl. and quinquatria -orum and -ium , n. pl. [a festival of Minerva].

quinquennis -e [of five years , five years old].

quinquennium -i n. [a period of five years].

quinqueremis -e [having five banks of oars]; f. as subst. [a quinquereme].

quinquevir -i m. [one of a board of five].

quinqueviratus -us m. [the office of quinquevir].

quintadecimani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the fifteenth legion].

quintanus -a -um [of the fifth]; f. as subst. (sc. via) , [a road in a Roman camp]; m. pl. [soldiers of the fifth legion].

Quintilianus (Quinct-) -i m. M. Fabius Quintilianus , [head of a school of rhetoric at Rome].

quippe [certainly , indeed, to be sure, of course].

Quirinus -i m. [the name of Romulus after his apotheosis]; adj. Quirinus -a -um and Quirinalis -e , [of Romulus]; 'collis', [the Quirinal Hill at Rome]; n. pl. Quirinalia -ium, [a festival in honor of Romulus].

Quiris -itis and pl. Quirites -ium and -um m. [the inhabitants of the Sabine town Cures; also used of the citizens of Rome in their civil capacity].

quotidianus (cottidianus cotid-) -a -um , [daily, of every day; everyday, common, ordinary].

quoties (quotiens) [how often] (interrog. and exclam.); relat. (often with toties) , [as often as].

quotiescumque (-cunque) [however often].

Rabirius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

racemus -i m. [a cluster , esp. of grapes].

radius -i m. [a staff , rod; the spoke of a wheel; the radius of a circle]; in weaving, [a shuttle]; in botany, [a kind of long olive]. Transf., [a ray, beam of light].

radix -icis f. [a root; the foot of a mountain]; in gen. [foundation , basis, origin].

rado radere rasi rasum [to scrape , shave, graze; to erase; to hurt, offend].

rameus -a -um [of branches].

Ramnes and Ramnenses -ium m. pl. [one of the three tribes into which the early Roman citizens were divided].

ramosus -a -um [full of boughs , branching].

rancidus -a -um [stinking , rank, offensive].

rapio rapere rapui raptum [to seize , snatch, tear away; to plunder a place; to hurry along a person or thing]; 'se rapere', [to rush off]. Transf., [to pervert, lead astray]. N. of partic. as subst. raptum -i, [plunder].

raptio -onis f. [carrying off , abduction].

rapto -are [to seize and carry off , to hurry away; to rob, plunder a place].

raptus -us m. [tearing off , rending away; carrying off, abduction, rape; plundering].

raritas -atis f. [thinness; looseness of texture; fewness , rarity].

ratiocinatio -onis f. [reasoning; esp. a form of argument , syllogism].

raudus (rodus rudus) -eris , n. [a rough mass, lump, esp. of copper money].

raudusculum -i n. [a small sum of money].

rebellio -onis f. [a renewal of war] , esp. by the conquered; [a revolt].

receptaculum -i n. [a reservoir , receptacle; a place of refuge, shelter, retreat].

receptus -us m. [drawing back; withdrawal , recantation; retiring, retreat, return]; poet. [a place of retreat].

recessus -us m. [going back , retreat, withdrawal; a place of retreat, quiet place].

recipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum [to hold back , retain; to take back, fetch back]; 'se recipere', [to withdraw, retreat]; [to regain, recover; to to receive, accept, take to oneself; to receive hospitably]. Transf. [to accept, admit, allow; to accept an obligation]; hence [to guarantee, promise, be responsible for]. N. of partic. as subst. receptum -i, [an engagement, guarantee].

reconcilio -are [to restore , repair]; of persons, [to reunite, reconcile].

recondo -dere -didi -ditum [to put away , put back, store, hide]. Hence partic. reconditus -a -um, [put away, concealed; abstruse, profound]; of character, [reserved, mysterious].

recordor -ari dep. [to remember , recollect; to think of, ponder over].

rector -oris m. [ruler , governor, director, guide]; 'navis', [steersman]; of animals, [driver or rider].

recuperator (reciperator) -oris m. [a recoverer]; pl. recuperatores , [a board of arbiters appointed by the praetors].

recuperatorius -a -um [of the recuperatores (q.v.)].

redemptio -onis f. [a buying up , bribing; farming of taxes; buying back, ransoming, redemption].

redeo -ire -ii (-ivi) -itum (1) [to go back , come back, return]; 'ad se', [to come to one's senses]; redit, [the matter comes up again]. (2) of revenue, income, etc. [to come in]. (3) [to fall back upon, be reduced or brought to].

redigo -igere -egi -actum [to drive back , bring back]; of money, etc. [to draw in, call in]; in gen. [to bring or reduce to a condition; to reduce in number, value, etc.; to lessen, bring down].

reditus -us m. [going back , return]; 'in gratiam', [reconciliation]; of money, etc. [returns, income, revenue].

redoleo -ere -ui [to emit an odor , smell of].

refigo -figere -fixi -fixum [to unfasten , demolish, remove]; of laws, [to repeal, abrogate].

refrigero -are [to cool off]; pass. refrigerari , [to cool oneself, grow cool, grow languid].

refugio -fugere -fugi intransit. [to flee back , run away; to shrink]; of places, [to recede]; transit. [to fly from, avoid].

regalis -e [of a king , royal, regal]; adv. regaliter, [regally, tyrannically].

Regillus -i m. [a lake in Latium , scene of a victory of the Romans over the the Latins, 496 B.C.].

regius -a -um [of a king , royal, regal; splendid, magnificent]. F. as subst. regia -ae, [palace, court, the royal family; capital city]. Adv. regie, [royally; tyrannically].

reicio -icere -ieci -iectum [to throw back , throw behind, throw away; to drive off]; of a storm, [to drive back, cast up]. Transf. [to throw off reject; to refer]; in time, [to put off]; legal, [to challenge a juror].

reiectio -onis f. [throwing back , rejection]; legal, [the challenging of a juror].

relego (2) -legere -legi -lectum [to gather up again]; of places , [to pass again]; of topics, [to go over again].

religio (relligio) -onis f. , of persons, [scrupulousness, conscientious exactness]; esp. [religious scruple, awe, superstition, strict observance]; in gen. [moral scruples, conscientiousness]; of gods, etc., [sanctity]; [an object of worship, holy thing or place].

religiosus (relligiosus) -a -um of persons , [scrupulous, conscientious; holy, strict, superstitious]; of actions, either [required] or [forbidden by religion]; of gods, etc. [holy, sacred]. Adv. religiose, [conscientiously, scrupulously; religiously].

reliquus (relicus) -a -um [left behind , remaining, other]; of a debt, [outstanding]; of time, [remaining, future]. N. as subst., sing. and plur., [the rest, remainder]; 'in reliquum', [for the future].

remedium -i n. [means of healing , cure, remedy, medicine].

remissio -onis f. [letting go back , letting fall, lowering; breaking off, interrupting; remitting]; 'animi', [relaxation, quiet].

remitto -mittere -misi -missum (1) [to send back , send again; throw back; echo]. (2) [to let go back, relax, loosen; to relieve, abate]; with infin. [to give up doing]; intransit. [to ease off]. (3) [to give up, yield; abandon, sacrifice; to forgive an offence, remit punishment]. Hence partic. remissus -a -um, [relaxed, mild, gentle]; in bad sense, [negligent, remiss]. Adv. remisse.

removeo -movere -movi -motum [to move back , withdraw]. Hence partic. remotus -a -um, [removed, withdrawn, distant, far off, remote]; adv. remote, [far off, at a distance].

Remus -i m. [twin brother of Romulus].

reno (2) -onis m. [a garment made of fur].

reporto -are [to bring back , carry back]; of reports, [to deliver].

requiro -quirere -quisii and -quisivi -quisitum [to ask for , look for, enquire after; to demand, desire; to miss, feel the want of].

res rei f. [a thing , object, matter, affair, circumstance]; 'natura rerum', [the world, the universe, nature]; 'pro re', [according to circumstance]; esp. [the real thing, fact, truth, reality]; 're vera', [in truth]; [possessions, property, wealth; interest, advantage, benefit]; 'in rem', [to one's advantage]; [cause, ground, reason]; 'qua re, quam ob rem', [wherefore]; [a matter of business; a law suit, action]; 'res publica' or 'respublica', [the republic, state, commonwealth]; 'e republica', [in the public interest].

rescindo -scindere -scidi -scissum [to tear back , cut away, break open]; 'vulnus', [to reopen]; of laws, etc. [to rescind, repeal].

resipio -sipere [to have a flavor of anything].

respiro -are (1) [to breathe back , blow in a contrary direction]. (2) [to breathe again, to take breath; to recover from fear, etc.]; of things, [to abate, decline].

respondeo -spondere -spondi -sponsum intransit. [to match , correspond to, answer to; to resemble]; legal, [to answer to one's name, appear, be present]; transit. [to give an answer to a person or thing, to answer, reply]. N. of partic. as subst. responsum -i, [an answer, reply; a lawyer's opinion].

resto -stare -stiti (1) [to make a stand , resist, oppose]. (2) [to stand still, stay behind; to be left over, survive; to remain available or possible]; of the future, [to await, be in store].

resulto -are [to spring back , rebound; to echo, resound]; of style, [to go jerkily].

Rhadamanthus -i m. [brother of Minos , a judge in the lower world].

Rhea (1) Silvia [mother of Romulus and Remus].

Rhea (2) -ae f. [old name of Cybele].

rhetor -oris m. [a teacher of rhetoric , a rhetoritician].

rhetoricus -a -um [rhetorical]; subst. f. rhetorica -ae and rhetorice -es , [the art of oratory]; m. pl. rhetorici -orum, [teachers of rhetoric]; adv. rhetorice, [rhetorically].

rho n. indecl. [the Greek name of the letter R].

rigeo -ere [to be stiff] (esp. with cold); of hair , [to stand on end]; partic. rigens -entis, [stiff].

rigesco rigescere rigui [to grow stiff]; of hair , [to stand on end].

rimosus -a -um [full of cracks , leaky].

risus -us m. [laughing , laughter; ridicule; an object of ridicule].

ritus -us m. [usage , ceremony, rite]; abl. ritu, with genit. [after the manner of].

robigo (rubigo) -inis f. [rust; blight , mildew; inaction, mental rust]. Personif. Robigo (Rub-) -inis, f. or Robigus (Rub-) -i, m. [a deity invoked to preserve grain from mildew]; Robigalia -ium, n. [the festival of Robigo].

robur -oris n. [hard wood]; esp. [oak , oak wood]; [a dungeon in Rome, also called the Tullianum]; as a quality, [hardness, strength]; in gen. [the pick, flower] of anything.

robustus -a -um [of hard wood]; esp. [of oak , oaken]; [strong, powerful, firm].

rogalis -e [of the funeral pile].

rogator -oris m. [one who asks; the proposer of a bill; a polling-clerk].

rogo -are [to ask , inquire; to ask for, request]; polit., 'rogare aliquem sententiam', [to ask a person his opinion]; 'rogare populum' or 'legem', [to propose a law, introduce a bill]; 'rogare magistratum', [to offer a person for election].

Romulus -i m. [son of Mars , founder and first king of Rome]; adj. Romuleus and Romulus -a -um.

rosa -ae f. [a rose; a garland of roses; a rose tree].

rosarius -a -um [of roses]; n. as subst. [a rose garden].

Roscius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

rosetum -i n. [a garden of roses].

roseus -a -um [of roses; rose-colored , rosy].

rostrum -i n. [beak , snout; a ship's prow]; plur. rostra -orum, [the speaker's platform in the Forum] (ornamented with prows of ships).

rotundus -a -um [round , circular]; sometimes [spherical]; [rounded, complete, self-contained]. Adv. rotunde, of style, [elegantly, smoothly].

rubeta (1) -ae f. [a species of toad].

rubeus -a -um [of bramble].

rudus (rodus) -eris n. [broken fragments of stone].

ruina -ae f. [falling down , collapse, ruin, destruction; the ruins of a building, debris].

rumpo rumpere rupi ruptum [to break , shatter, burst open; to cause to break forth; to destroy, violate, annul; to break off, interrupt].

rusticanus -a -um [of the country , rustic].

rusticus -a -um [of the country , rural, rustic; plain, simple; awkward, boorish]; m. as subst. [a countryman, a boor]. Adv. rustice.

rutula -ae f. [a little bit of rue].

Rutuli -orum m. pl. [an ancient people of Latium].

sabbata -orum n. pl. [the Sabbath , the Jewish day of rest].

Sabelli -orum m. pl. [poetic name of the Sabines].

Sabini -orum m. pl. [an ancient people of Italy , northerly neighbors of the Latins].

sacramentum -i n.: legal , [money deposited by the parties in a suit]; hence [a civil suit, legal process]; milit. [oath of allegiance]; hence [an oath or solemn promise].

sacrarium -i n. (1) [a place where sacred things are kept , sacristy]. (2) [a place of worship, chapel, shrine].

sacrificalis -e [of sacrifices].

sacrilegium -i n. [stealing of sacred things , sacrilege, profanation].

saecularis -e [relating to a saeculum or age]; 'ludi' , [secular games], (celebrated at intervals of about 100 years).

saeculum -i n. [a generation; the spirit of the age , the times; a hundred years, a century, an age].

saepe [often , frequently]; saepenumero, [repeatedly, again and again].

saepio saepire saepsi saeptum [to hedge in , enclose, surround, confine]; n. of partic. as subst. saeptum -i, [barrier, wall, enclosure]; in plur., [the enclosure where the Romans voted at the comitia].

saeta -ae f. [a bristle , stiff hair; part of an angler's line].

sagittarius -a -um [of an arrow]; m. as subst. [an archer].

sagmen -inis n. [a bunch of sacred herbs].

sagum -i n. [a cloak of coarse wool].

Saguntum -i n. and Saguntus (-os) -i , f. [a town on the coast of Spain].

salarius -a -um [of salt]; n. as subst. [salt money , an allowance, pay]

salebra -ae f. [jolting; a rough patch of road]; of style , [ruggedness].

Saliatus -us m. [the office of a priest of Mars]; see Salii.

salictum -i n. [a plantation of willows].

salignus -a -um [of willow wood].

Salii -orum m. [a college of 12 priests of Mars Gradivus]; adj. Saliaris -e , [relating to the Salii; splendid, magnificent].

salio salire salui saltum [to spring , leap, bound]; f. pl. of partic. as subst. salientes -ium, [fountains].

Sallustius -i m.: C. Sallustius Crispus , [the Roman historian Sallust, contemporary of Cicero].

salpa -ae f. [a kind of stock-fish].

saltatorius -a -um [of dancing].

salvus -a -um [safe , unhurt, well, all right]; 'salvo iure', [without infraction of law]. Adv. salve.

sambuca -ae f. [a species of harp].

Samnium -i n. [a region of central Italy]; adj. and subst. Samnis -itis , [Samnite].

sancio sancire sanxi sanctum (sancitum) [to consecrate , hallow, make inviolable, confirm, ratify, decree]; also [to forbid on pain of punishment, provide against]. Hence partic. sanctus -a -um, [consecrated, holy, sacred; pure, virtuous]. Adv. sancte, [solemnly, conscientiously].

sanguinarius -a -um [of blood; bloodthirsty , savage].

sanguineus -a -um [of blood , bloody; blood-red].

sanitas -atis f. [health , soundness; good sense, sanity]; of style, [correctness, purity].

sanus -a -um [sound , healthy, uninjured; of sound mind, rational, sane]; of style, [correct]. Hence adv. sane, [rationally, sensibly]. Transf., [really, indeed, to be sure]; with imperatives, [then, if you will]; 'sane quam', [exceedingly, extremely].

sapio sapere sapivi or sapii (1) [to taste]; with acc. [to taste or smell of]. (2) [to have taste , be able to taste]. (3) mentally, [to discern, be sensible, be wise, think]. Hence partic. sapiens -entis, [wise, sensible, judicious]; as subst., [a sensible, judicious person]; also [wise man, philosopher, sage]. Adv. sapienter.

sapor -oris m. [taste , flavor, flavoring; sense of taste; taste in style or conduct].

Sappho -us f. [a lyric poetess of Mytilene in Lesbos].

sarcinarius -a -um [of burdens or baggage].

Sardes (Sardis) -ium f. pl. [Sardis , the old capital of Lydia]; adj. Sardianus -a -um.

satrapes -is plur. satrapae -arum; m. [the governor of a Persian province , viceroy].

satur -ura -urum [full , sated, rich, copious]. F. as subst. satura -ae, [a dish of various ingredients, a medley]; 'per saturam', [indiscriminately]; satura (or satira), ['satire', as a literary form].

Saturnus -i m. (1) [the planet Saturn]. (2) [a mythical king of Latium]. Hence adj. Saturnius -a -um and Saturnalis -e; n. pl. as subst. Saturnalia -ium and -iorum , [a festival of Saturn, beginning on the December 17].

saxeus -a -um [of rock , stony].

saxosus -a -um [full of rocks , rocky].

scaenicus -a -um [of the stage , theatrical]; m. as subst. [a stage-hero, an actor].

Scaevola -ae m. [the left-handed , a surname of the gens Mucia].

scalae -arum f. pl. [a flight of stairs , ladder]; milit. [scaling-ladders].

scelus -eris n. [a crime]. Transf. [misfortune , calamity]. As a term of abuse, [scoundrel, rascal].

sceptuchus -i m. [wand-bearer , a court official].

scheda and scida -ae f. [a strip of papyrus bark; a leaf of paper].

scholasticus -a -um [of a school; esp. rhetorical]; m. as subst. [a student or teacher of rhetoric].

scilicet [evidently , certainly, of course]; ironically, [no doubt]; in answers, [certainly]; explanatory, [namely].

scindo scindere scidi scissum [to cut , rend, split; to divide, separate]. Partic. scissus -a -um, [torn, rent]; of the voice, [harsh].

Scipio -onis m. [a family in the gens Cornelia]; Scipiades -ae , [one of the family of the Scipios, a Scipio].

scirpeus (sirpeus) -a -um [of rushes]; f. as subst. [basket-work].

scirpiculus (sirpiculus) -a -um [of rushes]; m. and f. as subst. [a rush-basket].

scisco sciscere scivi scitum [to investigate , inquire]; polit. [to vote, ordain, resolve]. Hence partic. scitus -a -um, [knowing, shrewd, judicious; pretty, fine]; adv. scite, [skillfully]; n. of partic. as subst. [decree, statute]; 'plebis scitum', [a decree of the people of Rome].

scorteus -a -um [leathern , made of leather]; f. as subst. [a leather garment].

scriblita -ae f. [a kind of pastry].

scribo scribere scripsi scriptum [to engrave , draw lines, write, write on, write about]; polit. [to draw up laws, etc.]; legal, 'dicam scribere', [to bring an action]; with double acc. [to appoint in writing]; milit., [to enrol]. N. of partic. as subst. scriptum -i, [a mark or line; a composition, piece of writing]; esp. [a decree, law].

scriptio -onis f. [the act of writing; authorship , composition; wording].

scriptito -are [to write often].

scriptura -ae f. [a piece of writing , composition; a testamentary disposition; a rent paid on public pastures].

scrupeus -a -um [of sharp stones , rugged, rough].

scruposus -a -um [of sharp stones , rugged, rough].

scrupulosus -a -um [full of stones , rough, rugged]. Transf. [exact, scrupulous, precise].

scutale -is n. [the thong of a sling].

se or sese acc. sing. and plur.; sui , genit.; sibi, dat.; se or sese, abl.; strengthened forms, sepse, semet; reflexive pronoun of the third person, [himself, herself, itself, themselves]; 'sibi velle', [to mean]; secum = cum se; 'inter se', [reciprocally].

secerno -cernere -crevi -cretum [to separate , part, sunder; to distinguish; to set aside, reject]. Hence partic. secretus -a -um, [separate, alone, special; retired, solitary; hidden, secret]; with abl. [deprived of]. N. as subst. secretum -i, [retirement, solitude; a secret, mystery]. Abl. as adv. secreto, [apart, secretly].

secludo -cludere -clusi -clusum [to shut off; to confine , to separate from others].

secta -ae f. [a way , mode of life, procedure; a school of thought].

sectio -onis f. [cutting]. Transf. [the buying up of state property]; concr. [auctioned property , a lot].

sector (1) -oris m. [a cutter]. Transf. [a buyer of state property].

sector (2) -ari dep. [to follow eagerly; to accompany , attend]; of enemies, [to run after, chase]; in gen. [to strive after, try to get or find].

secundani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the second legion].

secundum adv. [after , behind]; prep., with acc., [following, after, along beside; during; in addition to; next after, next to; according to; in favor of].

securitas -atis f. [freedom from care; peace of mind , composure; carelessness, false confidence]. Transf. [freedom from danger, security].

sedeo sedere sedi sessum [to sit; to sit in council or judgment; to sit about , be inactive]; milit. [to remain encamped]; of things, [to be settled, stay fixed]; of resolves, [to be firmly determined].

sedes -is f. [a seat; a chair , throne; an abode, home]; of things, [place, seat, base, foundation].

sedulus -a -um [busy , diligent]; in bad sense, [officious]. N. abl. as adv. sedulo, [busily; purposely, designedly].

segmentum -i n. [a cutting , shred]; plur. [borders or patches of purple or gold].

Seleucus -i m. [name of several kings of Syria].

sellisternia -orum n. pl. [religious banquets in honor of goddesses].

Semela -ae and Semele -es f. [mother of Bacchus].

sementivus -a -um [of seed-time].

semestris (semenstris) -e [of six months , lasting six months].

semis -issis m. [the half of anything]; e.g. of an as or iuger; as a rate of interest = 6 per cent per annum.

semitalis -e [of the footpaths].

semitarius -a -um [of the footpaths].

Sempronius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

semunciarius -a -um [of the fraction 1/24]; 'faenus' , [1/24 per cent monthly; i.e. 1/2 per cent per annum].

senarius -a -um [composed of six in a group]; 'senarius (versus)' , m. [a senarius, a verse of six feet].

senator -oris m. [a member of the senate , a senator].

senatorius -a -um [of a senator , senatorial].

senatus -us (or -i) , m. [a council of elders, the Senate];'senatus (senati) consultum', [a formal resolution of the senate].

Seneca -ae f. M. Annaeus Seneca , [a rhetoritician from Corduba in Spain]; L. Annaeus Seneca, [his son, a Stoic philosopher, tutor of Nero].

senilis -e [of an old man , senile]; adv. seniliter.

sensus -us m. [sense , sensation; feeling, attitude; judgment, perception, understanding; sense, meaning of words, etc.; a sentence].

sententia -ae f. [a way of thinking , opinion, thought, meaning, purpose; a decision, vote; meaning, sense of words, etc.; a sentence, period]; esp., [a maxim, aphorism].

sentina -ae f. [bilge-water; rabble , dregs of the population].

sentio sentire sensi sensum [to feel , perceive; to experience, feel the force of a thing; to realize a truth; to hold an opinion, judge, suppose]; legal, [to decide, to vote]. N. pl. of partic. as subst. sensa -orum, [thoughts, sentiments].

sepono -ponere -posui -positum [to put on one side , place apart, reserve; to put out of the way, banish; to distinguish, divide]. Partic. sepositus -a -um, [distant, remote; choice, select].

September -bris [of September]; '(mensis) September' , [the seventh month of the Roman year, September].

septemtriones (septen-) -um m. pl. [the seven stars of either the Great Bear or the Little Bear]; in gen. [the north; the north wind].

septemvir -viri m. [one of the septemviri , a college or guild of seven persons]; adj. septemviralis -e, [of septemviri]; subst. septemviratus -us, m. [the office of septemvir].

septimanus -a -um [of the seventh]; m. pl. as subst. [soldiers of the seventh legion].

septuennis -e [of seven years].

sepulcralis -e [of a tomb , sepulchral].

sepulcrum -i n. [a place of burial , grave, tomb].

sepultura -ae f. [burial , internment; also the burning of a dead body].

sequius = secius , compar. of secus; q.v.

sequor sequi secutus dep. [to follow , accompany, attend; to pursue, chase]; in time, [to follow, ensue; to follow logically, follow as a consequence]; of property, [to go to, fall to; to conform to; to strive after, aim at].

series acc. -em , abl. -e, f. [a row, chain, series; a line of descent, lineage].

sermo -onis m. [talk , conversation; discussion; common talk, report, rumor; a subject of conversation; a conversational style, or prose; any manner of speaking, style, expression, diction, language, dialect].

sero (1) serere sevi satum [to sow , set, plant]; n. pl. of partic. as subst. sata -orum, [standing corn, crops]; [to beget, engender, bring forth]; partic. satus -a -um, [sprung, born]; in gen. [to produce, give rise to].

serracum -i n. [a kind of wagon].

servilis -e [of a slave , servile]; adv. serviliter.

Servilius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

servio -ire (with dat.) , [to be a slave, to serve, help, gratify]; legal, of buildings, etc. [to be subject to certain rights, e.g. to be mortgaged].

servitus -utis f. [slavery , servitude]; in gen. [subjection, obedience]; legal, of houses, etc. [liability to certain burdens, e.g. a right of way]; concr. [slaves].

servus -a -um adj. [serving , servile, subject]; legal, of lands, etc., [subject to other rights]; m. and f. as subst. [a slave, servant].

sescenarius -a -um [consisting of six hundred].

sesquioctavus -a -um [containing 9/8 of a thing].

sesquitertius -a -um [containing 4/3 of anything].

sessilis -e [fit for sitting]; of plants , [low, dwarf].

sessio -onis f. [the act of sitting; loitering , idling; a session; a place for sitting, seat].

sessito -are [to sit much , sit often].

sestertius -a -um [consisting of two and a half]; m. as subst. sestertius -i , [a sesterce, a silver coin, = 1/4 denarius, = 2 1/2 asses].

Sestius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

sexennium -i n. [a period of six years].

sexprimi -orum m. pl. [a board of six magistrates in a provincial town].

sextadecimani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the 16th legion].

sextarius -i m. [one sixth , esp. of a congius (about a pint)].

Sextilis -e [of the sixth month of the old Roman year]; 'sextilis (mensis)' , [the sixth month, afterwards called Augustus].

sibila -orum n. pl.: as adj. [hissing]; as subst.=plur. of sibilus(q.v.).

Sibylla -ae f. [a prophetess of Apollo , a Sibyl]; adj. Sibyllinus -a -um, [of the Sibyl, Sibylline].

Sicani -orum m. pl. [an ancient people of Sicily]; adj. Sicanus and Sicanius -a -um , [Sicilian]; subst. Sicania -ae, f. [Sicily].

siccitas -atis f. [dryness , drought; sound health]; of style, [plainness, simplicity].

siccus -a -um [dry; thirsting , thirsty]; of health, [sound; sober, temperate]; of style, [plain, simple]; adv. sicce.

Sicyon -onis f. [a city in the Peloponnese]; adj. Sicyonius -a -um , [Sicyonian]; n. pl. as subst. [a kind of soft shoes from Sicyon].

sidereus -a -um [of the stars , starry; gleaming].

sido sidere sidi and sedi sessum [to sit or sink down , settle, alight; to remain lying or fixed]; naut. [to stick fast, be stranded]; of feelings, [to subside].

Sidon -onis f. [a city of Phoenicia]; adj. Sidonius -a -um; f. adj. Sidonis -idis.

sidus -eris n. [a constellation or a single star; any luminary , heavenly body; time of year, season, weather]; in astrology, [star, destiny]; plur. [the heavens]. Transf. [pride, glory].

significatio -onis f. [indication , sign, token; sign of assent, approbation; emphasis; meaning, signification].

signum -i n. [a sign , mark, token; a warning, symptom]; milit. [a standard, banner, ensign; a signal, order, command; a watchword, password]; [a figure, image, statue; a seal, signet; a group of stars, constellation].

Silius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

Silvanus -i m. [god of woods and forests].

silvesco -ere of a vine , [to run wild, run to wood].

silvestris -e [of woods; wooded; wild , rural].

simulo -are [to make like , cause to resemble; to make a copy of, represent; to play the part of; to pretend a thing is so, simulate, feign]; partic., simulans -antis, [imitating, imitative]; adv. from perf. partic. simulate, [feignedly].

sinciput -pitis n. [half a head; the smoked chap of a pig].

sinus (1) -us m. [a curve , fold, winding]; of dress, [a fold, pocket, lap]; in a coastline, [a bay, gulf]. Transf. [heart, secret feelings].

sis (1) = si vis; see volo. (2) second sing. of pres. subj. of sum; q.v. (3) dat. or abl. plur. of suus; q.v.

sistrum -i n. [a sort of rattle used in the worship of Isis].

sittybus -i m. [a strip of parchment showing the title of a book].

socialis -e [of partners or allies; conjugal; sociable]. Adv. socialiter , [sociably].

Socrates -is m. [the Athenian philosopher , put to death in 399 B.C.]. Adj. Socraticus -a -um, [Socratic]; m. pl. as subst. [followers of Socrates].

sodalicius -a -um [of companionship].

sodalis -is c. [a member of an association , esp. of a priesthood or a secret society]; in gen. [a comrade]; of things, [companion, attendant on].

solaris -e [of the sun , solar].

solea -ae f. [a sandal; a kind of fetter; a shoe for an animal; a fish , the sole].

soliferreum -i n. [a javelin entirely of iron].

solium -i n. (1) [a chair of state , throne]; hence [dominion, regal power] (2) [a bathtub].

sollicitus -a -um [disturbed , agitated, restless; anxious, uneasy, worried]; of animals, [watchful]; in act. sense, [disquieting]. Adv. sollicite, [anxiously, carefully].

solstitialis -e [of the summer solstice; of summer; of the sun].

solum -i n. [bottom , floor, foundation; the sole of the foot, or shoe; soil, ground, earth, land, country].

solus -a -um [alone , only, sole]; of places, [solitary, uninhabited]. N. acc. as adv. solum, [alone, only].

solvo solvere solvi solutum [to loosen; to untie , release, free; to dissolve, break up; to exempt; to break up, weaken, bring to an end; to pay off, discharge a debt]; 'solvendo non esse', [to be insolvent]; [to meet engagements, perform duties; to break down a restraining influence; to solve a problem, explain a difficulty]. Hence partic. solutus -a -um, [loosened, unbound, free, unencumbered, independent]; in bad sense, [unrestrained, unbridled; lax, lazy, negligent]; of style, [fluent or in prose]. Adv. solute, [loosely, freely, carelessly].

somnio -are [to dream]; with acc. [to dream of]; [to imagine foolishly].

sonivius -a -um [sounding]; 'sonivium tripudium' , [the noise of the food falling from the beaks of the sacred chickens].

sono sonare sonui sonitum [to sound , resound, make a noise; to sing of, to celebrate]; of words, [to mean].

soporatus -a -um [full of sleep].

sordes -is f. often plur. sordes -ium , [dirt, filth; shabby or dirty garments; low rank; sordid conduct, meanness].

sororius -a -um [of a sister , sisterly].

sors sortis f. [a lot; a casting of lots; an oracular response , prophecy; official duty as allotted]; with genit. [share, part]; [fate, fortune, destiny; money, capital out at interest].

Sospita -ae f. [the Savior]; epithet of Juno.

Sparta -ae and Sparte -es f. [Sparta , the capital of Laconia]; adj. Spartanus -a -um, [Spartan].

spatior -ari dep. [to walk about , take a walk]; of things, [to spread out, expand].

spatiosus -a -um [ample , wide]; of time, [long]; adv. spatiose.

spatium -i n. [space , extent, room; distance, interval; dimensions, size; a tract, course], esp. in a race; [an open space, a walk]. Transf. [a space of time, period; leisure, opportunity; metrical time, measure, quantity].

spectatio -onis f. [looking , watching, viewing; inspection of money].

specto -are [to look at , contemplate, watch; to test, examine]; of places, [to look towards, face]. Transf. [to consider, contemplate, look for; to bear in mind, have in view]; of things, [to tend, incline]. Hence partic. spectatus -a -um, [tried, approved]; hence [esteemed, respected].

specula (2) -ae f. [a little hope , ray of hope].

speculatorius -a -um [of a scout]; f. as subst. [a spy-boat].

spero -are [to look for , expect]; of good things, [to hope, hope for]; of bad, [to anticipate, forebode].

spes -ei f. [expectation]; of good things , [hope]; of bad, [anticipation, foreboding].

spica -ae f. [a spike; an ear of corn; a tuft].

spiceus -a -um [of ears of corn].

spicifer -fera -ferum [carrying ears of corn].

spineus -a -um [of thorns , thorny].

spinosus -a -um [of thorns , thorny, prickly]; of style, [crabbed, obscure]; of feeling, [anxious].

spiritus -us m. [breathing , breath, exhalation; a sigh; the breath of life, life; inspiration; spirit, disposition; a high spirit, pride].

splendidus -a -um [shining , bright, brilliant; distinguished, outstanding; showy, specious]; of sound, [clear]. Hence adv. splendide, [splendidly, finely, nobly].

splendor -oris m. [brilliance , brightness, luster, distinction]; of sound, [clarity].

spondylus -i m. [a kind of mussel].

sponsalis -e [of betrothal]; n. pl. as subst. sponsalia -ium or -iorum , [a betrothal, betrothal feast].

sponte abl. f.: of persons , [willingly, of one's own accord; unaided]; of things, [by itself, automatically; in itself, alone].

spuo spuere spui sputum [to spit out]; n. of partic. as subst. sputum -i , [spittle].

squalidus -a -um [rough , stiff, scaly; squalid, dirty; in mourning]; of style, [rough]; adv. squalide.

squalor -oris m. [roughness , stiffness; dirt caused by neglect; mourning]; of style, [roughness].

squalus -i m. [a kind of fish].

stacta -ae and stacte -es [oil of myrrh].

stadium -i n. [a stade , a Greek measure of length; a race-course].

stagno -are intransit. [to be stagnant , stagnate]: of places, [to lie under water]; transit. [to overflow, inundate].

stamen -inis n. [the warp of a loom; the thread hanging from a distaff]; 'stamina ducere' , [to spin]; [any thread or woven cloth].

stamineus -a -um [full of threads].

stannum -i n. [an alloy of silver and lead].

statarius -a -um [steady , stable, stationary]; f. as subst. stataria -ae, [a quiet kind of comedy]; m. pl. statarii -orum, [the actors in this].

statio -onis f. [a standing still; a place of abode]; milit. [post , station, or picket]; naut. [roadstead, anchorage].

Statius -i m.: Caecilius Statius , [a comic poet, born 168 B.C.]; P. Papinius Statius, [a poet of Domitian's time].

Stator -oris m. [stayer of flight , a surname of Jupiter].

statuarius -a -um [of statues]; f. as subst. [the art of sculpture]; m. [a statuary].

statumen -inis n. [stay , support]; in pl. [the ribs of a ship].

statuo -uere -ui -utum [to cause to stand , place, set up; to establish, settle a point; to give a ruling, make arrangements; to decide (on a course or a matter of fact)].

sterno sternere stravi stratum [to stretch out , to spread]; 'se sternere', [to lie down]; [to strike down, lay down, overthrow; to make smooth; to calm, allay; to strew, spread a thing (with something else)]; 'lectum', [to make, make up]; 'equos', [to saddle]; 'viam', [to pave]. N. of partic. as subst. stratum -i, [a coverlet, blanket; a bed; a saddle-cloth, saddle; a pavement].

sternuo -uere -ui [to sneeze]; of a light , [to sputter].

stillicidium -i n. [dripping moisture; rainwater falling from the eaves of houses].

stilus -i m. [a stake , pale; the pointed instrument with which the Romans wrote on wax tablets]; hence [writing, composition; mode of writing, style].

stipatio -onis f. [a crowd of attendants , retinue].

stipendiarius -a -um (1) [liable to taxes , tributary]; m. pl. as subst., [tributaries]. (2) of soldiers, [serving for pay].

stipendium -i n. (1) [a tax , tribute, contribution]. Transf. [punishment]. (2)[the pay of a soldier; military service; a year's service, campaign].

stirps (stirpes stirpis) stirpis , f. rarely m. [the stock or stem of a plant; a young shoot]; of men, [stock, source, origin]; of things, [root, foundation].

sto stare steti statum [to stand , stand still, remain standing; to stand up stiffly]; milit. [to be stationed or stand firm]; naut. [to lie at anchor]; of abstr. things, [to remain, be fixed, stand firm, persist]; [to be resolved]; with ab, cum, pro, [to stand by, support, favor]; with abl. of price, [to cost]; 'per hominem stare', [to happen through a person's fault, be due to a person].

stramineus -a -um [made of straw].

strategema -atis n. [a piece of generalship , a stratagem].

strepo -ere -ui -itum [to clatter , creak, clash, rumble]; of persons, [to cry out]; of places, [to resound].

strictura -ae f. [a mass of iron].

strigosus -a -um [lean , thin]: of style, [meager].

stringo stringere strinxi strictum (1) [to draw tight together , to bind, tie]. (2) [to strip off, pluck, prune]; esp. [to draw a weapon from its sheath]. (3) [to graze, touch lightly; to affect, injure]; in speech, [to touch upon]. Hence partic. strictus -a -um, [close, tight; strict]; of style, [brief, concise].

structura -ae f. [the act of building]; concr. [a building]; of style , [arrangement, putting together].

stupeo -ere -ui [to be stunned , astounded, amazed]; of inanimate things, [to stand still, halt, cease].

stuppeus -a -um [of tow].

suadeo suadere suasi suasum [to recommend , advise] (a course of action to a person).

suasorius -a -um [of persuasion]; as subst. [persuasive discourse].

suaviloquentia -ae f. [sweetness of speech].

sub prep. (1) with abl.: [underneath , under; close under, at the foot of]; in time, [at, near to]; [in the power of, under; under cover of]; (2) with acc.: [to (or along) the underside of; up under, down under; along under; close up to]; in time, [towards, just before], also [immediately after]; [into the power of].

subdo -dere -didi -ditum [to put , place or lay under; to subject, subdue; to put in the place of another, substitute; to counterfeit].

subduco -ducere -duxi -ductum [to draw up from under , pull up, raise, remove; to take away stealthily, steal]; naut. [to draw a ship up on shore];milit. [to withdraw]; of accounts, [to balance, cast up].

subductio -onis f. [the drawing up of a ship on dry land; a reckoning , computing].

subeo -ire -ii or -ivi -itum (1) [to go under , pass under]; of a bearer, [to go under and support; to undergo, submit to, take upon oneself]. (2) [to come from under, approach, advance, mount, climb]; of thoughts, etc. [to come into, or come over, the mind]. (3) [to come on after, to follow]; sometimes [to come and support]. Hence partic. subitus -a -um, as adj. [sudden; coming suddenly, taking by surprise]; pass. [suddenly done, hastily contrived, improvised]. N. as subst., [a sudden occurrence, emergency]. N. abl. as adv. subito, [suddenly].

subicio -icere -ieci -iectum (1) [to throw or place under; to submit , subject]; in speech or writing, [to append, reply]. (2) [to throw up from below, raise, lift; to put into a mind, suggest]. (3) [to substitute, insert by guile, counterfeit]. Hence partic. subiectus -a -um, [subjected]; of places, [lying near, adjacent]; superl. adv. subiectissime, [most submissively].

sublego -legere -legi -lectum [to gather from below , pick up; to carry off secretly; to choose in the place of another].

subluo -luere -lutum [to wash below]; of rivers , [to flow beneath].

subnascor -nasci -natus dep. [to grow up out of or after].

suboffendo -ere [to give some offence].

suboles -is f. [a sprout , shoot, offspring, progeny].

subscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum [to write under , write beneath; to sign a document; to complete an indictment], hence [to prosecute, accuse]; with dat. [to support, assent to]; [to note down, make a note of].

subscriptio -onis f. [a writing beneath , signature; the completion of an indictment; a record, register].

subscriptor -oris m. [the signer of an indictment; an accuser].

subsortitio -onis f. [the choice of a substitute by lot].

substantia -ae f. [substance , essence; property, means of subsistence].

substituo -uere -ui -utum [to put next; to put under , to put in the place of another, to substitute].

subtilis -e [finely woven , slender, fine]; of senses, etc. [plain, simple, unadorned]. Hence partic. subtiliter, [by fine links or passages]; of judgment, [with discrimination]; of style, [plainly, simply].

subtilitas -atis f. [fineness , minuteness]; of judgment, [discrimination]; of style, [plainness, simplicity].

Subura -ae f. [a part of Rome , northeast of the Forum].

succedo -cedere -cessi -cessum (1) [to go under; to submit to]. (2) [to go from under , ascend, mount]. (3) [to come after; to succeed, relieve, follow]; of things, [to turn out well, prosper, succeed].

succenturio (1) -are [to put in the place of another , to substitute].

succidia -ae f. [a flitch of bacon].

succurro -currere -curri -cursum (1) [to run beneath , go under; to undergo]; of ideas, [to come into the mind]. (2) [to come to aid, succor, help, assist].

sucidus -a -um [juicy , full of sap].

sucinus -a -um [of amber].

sudatorius -a -um [of sweating]; n. as subst. [a sweating-room].

sudus -a -um [dry]; of weather , [bright, cloudless]; n. as subst. [fine weather].

Suetonius -i m. C. Suetonius Tranquillus , [author of the Lives of the Caesars].

sufes (suffes) -fetis m. [the chief magistrate of Carthage].

sufficio -ficere -feci -fectum transit. [to put under]; hence [to stain , steep, suffuse]; [to provide, supply; to put in place of another, to substitute, choose as a substitute]; intransit. [to be adequate, suffice]; with infin. [to be able].

suffragatorius -a -um [relating to the support of a candidate].

suffugium -i n. [a shelter , place of refuge].

suillus -a -um [of swine].

Sulla (Sylla) -ae m. [a name of a family in the gens Cornelia]; adj. Sullanus -a -um; verb sullaturio -ire , [to wish to imitate Sulla].

Sulmo -onis m. [birthplace of Ovid]; adj. Sulmonensis -e.

sumen -inis n. [the udder of a sow].

summoveo (submoveo) -movere -movi -motum [to move up from below; to move away , drive off, expel]; esp. of the lictor, [to clear a way for a magistrate, to keep back the crowd]; [to force away from, compel, to give up]; pass. partic. summotus -a -um, [lying out of the way, remote].

sumo sumere sumpsi sumptum [to take , choose, obtain, buy]; of clothes, etc., [to put on]; [to exact a punishment; to take upon oneself, claim; to take for granted, assume].

sumptio -onis f. [the premise of a syllogism].

sumptuosus -a -um: of things [costly , expensive]; of persons, [lavish, extravagant]; adv. sumptuose, [expensively, sumptuously].

suovetaurilia -ium n. pl. [a sacrifice of a sheep , pig and bull].

super (2). Adv. [over , above; besides, beyond, moreover; remaining, over and above]. Prep.: with abl., of place, [over, above]; of time, [at]; [concerning, about; besides, beyond]; with acc. of place, [over, above, upon]; of time, [during]; of superiority, [above, more than].

superbio -ire of persons , [to be proud, pride oneself]; of things, [to be splendid, superb].

supercilium -i n. [an eyebrow; the eyebrows; a nod (as expression of will); arrogance , censoriousness]; of things, [ridge, summit].

superior -oris compar. of superus; q.v.

supero -are intransit. [to go above , overtop, project; to prevail, conquer; to abound; to remain, be over]; esp. [to remain alive, survive]; [to be too much, to exceed]; transit. [to rise above, surmount, overtop, pass; to surpass, excel, exceed; to overcome, conquer]. Compar. of pres. partic., superantior -oris, [more dominant].

superus (rarely super) -a -um [2 of 2] F. as subst. summa -ae , [the highest place, the main thing, most important point; a summary, the gist, the sum total of an amount]. N. as subst. summum -i, [surface, top]; acc. as adv. [at most]. Adv. summe, [in the highest degree, extremely].

superus (rarely super) -a -um [situated above; upper , higher]; m. pl. as subst. [the gods above]; also [men on earth]; n. pl. [heights or heavenly bodies]. Compar. superior -ius, [higher, upper]; of time, [earlier, former, past]; of rank, etc. [higher, greater]. Superl. supremus -a -um, [highest, uppermost]; in time, [last, final]; of degree, [highest, greatest]; of rank, [highest]; n. sing. as subst. [the end]; n. pl., suprema -orum, [death, funeral rites, last will and testament]. Used as another superl. summus -a -um, [highest, uppermost, at the top]; 'summa urbs', [the highest part of the city]; of the voice, [highest, loudest]; of time, [last]; of rank, etc. [greatest, highest, most distinguished]. [CONTINUED]

supinus -a -um [lying on the back , face-upwards]; 'manus', [with palm upwards]; of streams, [flowing up, returning]; of ground, [sloping upwards]; of character, [negligent, lazy].

supplementum -i n. [filling up , completion]: milit. [a body of recruits, reinforcements].

suppono -ponere -posui -positum (1) [to put under; to subject]. (2) [to put next to , to add]. (3) [to put in the place of; to substitute, counterfeit, forge].

supprimo -primere -pressi -pressum [to press under; to hold down , check, restrain; to keep back, suppress, conceal]; 'pecuniam, nummum', [to embezzle]. Partic. suppressus -a -um, [checked, restrained]; of the voice, [low, subdued].

supra Adv. [over , on the top]; of time, [before, previously]; in writing, [above]; of amount, etc. [over, more, beyond]; 'supra quam', [more than]. Prep. with acc. [above, over]; of time, [before]; of amount, [more than, above, beyond].

sura -ae f. [the calf of the leg].

surdus -a -um [deaf; unwilling to hear , insensible; not heard, still, silent]; of sounds, etc. [indistinct, faint].

sus suis c. [a sow , swine, pig, hog; a kind of fish].

suspendium -i n. [a hanging of oneself].

suspendo -pendere -pendi -pensum [to hang up; to prop up , support; to keep in suspense, leave undecided; to check, break off]. Hence partic. suspensus -a -um, [hovering, hanging, suspended; dependent; ambiguous, doubtful, in suspense].

sustento -are [to hold up , support, sustain; to maintain; to put off, hinder, delay].

sustineo -tinere -tinui -tentum [to hold up , support, sustain]; with infin., [to endure to, have the heart to]; [to maintain; to put off, delay; to hold back, check, restrain].

susurro -are [to murmur , mutter, whisper]; of bees, [to hum].

sutorius -a -um [of a shoemaker].

sutrinus -a -um [of a shoemaker].

suus -a -um reflexive possessive pronoun of 3rd person , [his, her, its, their (own)]; often strengthened by -pte or -met; somtimes [proper, due, suitable; favorable; independent]. As subst. [one's own people, property, etc.].

symphoniacus -a -um [of or for a concert].

synthesis -is f. [a dinner-service; a suit of clothes; a dressing-gown].

Syracusae -arum f. pl. [the chief town of Sicily].

syrtis -is f. [a sandbank , quicksand; esp. one on the coast of North Africa]

tabellarius -a -um [of letters or of voting]; M. as subst. [a letter carrier].

taberna -ae f. [a booth , hut; a cottage, hovel; a stall, shop; an inn, tavern; a block of seats in the Circus].

tabulatus -a -um [floored , boarded]; n. as subst. [a floor, story; a row or layer of vines].

Tacitus -i m. Cornelius , [the historian of the early Empire].

tactio -onis f. [touching , sense of touch].

tactus -us m. [touch , touching; influence, operation; the sense of touch].

taeter -tra -trum [foul , hideous, offensive; disgraceful, abominable]; adv. taetre.

talaris -e [of or stretching to the ankles]; n. pl. as subst. [wings on the ankles , winged sandals, or a robe reaching to the ankles].

talarius -a -um [of dice].

talentum -i n. [a (Greek) weight]; also [a sum of money].

talis -e [of such kind , such].

talus -i m. [the ankle , ankle bone; the heel; a die (originally made of the ankle bones of animals)].

Tantalus -i m. [a son of Jupiter , who offended the gods and was 'tantalized' in Hades].

tantus -a -um [of such a size , so great]. N. as subst. tantum -i, [so much]; acc. as adv. [so far, or only]; 'tantum non', [all but]; genit. tanti, [for so much, worth so much]; abl. tanto, [by so much].

tardus -a -um adj. [slow , tardy; dull, stupid]; poet. [making slow]; of speech, [measured, deliberate]. Adv. tarde, [slowly].

Tarentum -i n. [a coastal town of southern Italy] (now Taranto); adj. Tarentinus -a -um.

Tarpeius -a -um [name of a Roman family]; 'mons Tarpeius' , [the Tarpeian rock, from which criminals were thrown].

Tarquinii -orum m. pl. [an old town in Etruria , whence came the Tarquin family, including two kings of Rome].

taureus -a -um [of a bull]; f. as subst. [a whip of bull's hide].

taurinus -a -um [of or like a bull].

Telemachus -i m. [son of Penelope and Ulysses].

telum -i n. [a missile; a dart , javelin, spear; any weapon; a beam of light].

temo -onis m. [a pole; the pole of a wagon; a wagon; Charles's Wain].

temperies -ei f. [a proper mixture , tempering]; of climate, [mildness].

tempestas -atis f. [a period of time , a season; weather; esp. bad weather, storm, tempest]; fig. [attack, fury].

templum -i n. [a section , a part cut off; a space marked out by the augur for auspices; consecrated ground, esp. a sanctuary, asylum; a place dedicated to a deity, a shrine, temple; any open space, quarter, region; a rafter, crossbeam].

tempus -oris n. [a division , section]; [the temples of the head]; of time, [space, period, moment]; in gen. [time]; [a fit time, occasion, opportunity; the state, condition of things (esp. bad); time in pronouncing a syllable, quantity; time in grammar, tense]. As adv. tempore, tempori, and temperi, [at the right time, or for the occasion]; 'in tempore', [at the right moment]; 'ex tempore', [on the spur of the moment].

tensa -ae f. [a car on which images of the gods were carried].

Terentius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens]; esp. of M. Terentius Afer , [the comic dramatist].

tergum -i n. [the back]; 'terga dare' , [to flee]; 'a tergo', [in the rear]; [a hide, skin]; meton. [a thing made out of hide].

termes -itis m. [a branch , esp. of olive].

Terminalia -ium and -iorum n. pl. [the Festival of Terminus (god of boundaries)].

terminus -i m. [a boundary-mark , limit, end]; personif. [the god of boundaries].

tero terere trivi tritum [to rub; to whet , smooth; to grind, thresh; to wear out, use up, spend]. Hence partic. as adj. tritus -a -um, [worn; frequented; practiced]; of words, etc. [trite, well-known].

Terpsichore -es f. [the Muse of dancing]; in gen. [poetry].

terrenus -a -um [belonging to the earth , terrestrial; made of earth, earthen]; n. as subst. [land, ground].

terrestris -e [of the earth , terrestrial].

terreus -a -um [of the earth , earthly].

tertiadecimani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the thirteenth legion].

tertianus -a -um (1) [of the third day]; f. as subst. [a tertian fever]. (2) [belonging to the third legion]; m. pl. as subst. [soldiers of the third legion].

tesella -ae f. [a small cube of stone].

tessera -ae f. [a cube; a piece of mosaic paving; a die (with numbers on all six sides); a token; a watchword].

tesserarius -i m. [the officer who received the watchword].

testa -ae f. [an earthen vessel , pot, jug, urn, etc.; a potsherd; a brick or tile; the shell of a shellfish; any shell, covering].

testamentarius -a -um [relating to a will]; m. as subst. [a forger of wills].

testificor -ari dep. [to bear witness to , give evidence of; to show, bring to light; to call to witness].

testor -ari dep. (1) [to bear witness to , give evidence of; to make known, publish, declare]; as pass. [to be attested, declared]. (2) [to make a will]. (3) [to call to witness].

testudineus -a -um [of a tortoise; of tortoise-shell].

tetrachmum or tetradachmum -i n. [a Greek coin of four drachmae].

tetrarches -ae m. [ruler over one-fourth of a country , a tetrarch].

Teucer -cri and Teucrus -i m. (1) [son of Telamon , and brother of Ajax]. (2) [first king of Troy]; hence adj. Teucrus -a -um, [Trojan]; m. pl. as subst. [the Trojans]; Teucria -ae, f. [Troy].

texo texere texui textum [to weave; to twine together , plait; to put together, construct, build]; of speech and writing, [to compose]. N. of partic. as subst. textum -i, [woven cloth, a web; fabric]; of composition, [style].

textilis -e [woven , textile, plaited]. N. as subst. [a woven fabric, piece of cloth].

textus -us m. [a web; texture , structure]; of speech or writing, [connection].

Thalia -ae f. [the Muse of comic poetry].

theatralis -e [of a theater , theatrical].

Thebae -arum f. pl. [Thebes]. (1) [a city of Upper Egypt]. (2) [the chief city of Boeotia]. Adj. Thebanus -a -um , [belonging to Thebes].

Theseus -ei and -eos m. [a king of Athens , conqueror of the Minotaur]; adj. Theseus and Theseius -a -um, [of Theseus].

Thessalia -ae f. [Thessaly , a region in the north of Greece]; adj. Thessalicus and Thessalus -a -um, [Thessalian]; f. adj. Thessalis -idis, [Thessalian].

Thetis -idis of -idos f. [a sea-nymph , mother of Achilles]; poet. [the sea].

thiasus -i m. [a Bacchic rout , band of revellers].

Thracia -ae also Thraca -ae and Thrace -es; f. [the country of Thrace]; adj. Thracius and Threicius -a -um , [Thracian]; Thrax -acis and Threx -ecis, m. [Thracian, a Thracian].

Thucydides -is m. [the Athenian historian of the Peloponnesian war].

Thule (Thyle) -es f. [an island in the extreme north of Europe].

Thyestes -ae and -is m. [son of Pelops , brother of Atreus].

thyrsus -i m. [the stalk of a plant; a wand , as carried by Bacchus and his attendants].

Tiberis -beris m.; also poet. Tibris or Thibris -bridis , m. [the river Tiber]; adj. Tiberinus -a -um, [of the river Tiber]; m. as subst., [the river-god of the Tiber].

tibia -ae f. [the shin-bone , tibia; a pipe, flute (originally made of a hollow bone)].

tignarius -a -um [of beams]; 'faber' , [a carpenter].

Tigranes -is m. [a king of Armenia].

Tiridates -datis m. [name of several kings of Armenia].

tirocinium -i n. [the state of a recruit , rawness, inexperience; beginning, apprenticeship]; concr. [a body of recruits].

Tisiphone -es f. [one of the Furies].

Tithonus -i m. [husband of Aurora].

Tities -ium and Titienses -ium m. pl. [one of the three original tribes at Rome].

togatus -a -um [wearing the toga]; m. as subst. [a Roman citizen]; f. as subst. [the national drama of the Romans].

tollo tollere sustuli sublatum (1) [to lift up , raise, elevate];'in crucem', [to crucify]; 'tollere ancoras', [to weigh anchor]; 'laudibus', [to extol]; of children, [to acknowledge as one's own, to bring up]. (2) [to take away, remove, carry off, steal; to destroy, abolish].

tomaculum (-aclum) -i n. [a kind of sausage].

tomentum -i n. [the stuffing of a pillow , mattress, etc.].

Tomi -orum m. pl. and Tomis -is , f. [a town on the Black Sea, Ovid's place of exile].

tonsorius -a -um [of or for clipping].

topiarius -a -um [of ornamental gardening]; m. as subst. [a landscape gardener]; f. as subst. [the art of landscape gardening].

toral -alis n. [the valance of a couch].

tormentum -i n. [an instrument for twisting or pressing; a windlass; the rack; any instrument of torture]; hence [suasion , pressure; torture, torment]; milit. [a piece of artillery, or missile].

toties (-iens) [so often , so many times].

trabalis -e [of beams of wood; like a beam].

trabs trabis f. [a beam of wood; a tree-trunk; a ship; a roof; a table].

trado (transdo) -dere -didi -ditum [to hand over , give up, surrender, betray; to hand down to posterity]; esp. [to hand down an account of an event, to report, relate, teach]; with reflex. [to commit, surrender, devote oneself].

traduco (transduco) -ducere -duxi -ductum [to lead over , bring over or across; to lead past in front of others; to transpose, transfer]; of time, [to pass, spend, lead]; [to show, display; to expose to ridicule, 'show up'].

traductio -onis f. [transferring]; rhet. [metonomy]; 'temporis' , [passage or lapse of time].

tragula -ae f. [a species of javelin].

traho trahere traxi tractum [to trail , pull along; to drag, pull violently; to draw in, take up]; of air, [to breathe; to draw out], hence [to lengthen]; [to draw together, contract]. Transf. [to draw, attract; to take in or on, assume, derive; to prolong, spin out; to ascribe, refer, interpret]. Hence partic. tractus -a -um, of speech, [fluent, flowing]. N. as subst. [a flock of wool].

trans prep. with acc. [over , across, on or to the other side of].

transfero transferre transtuli translatum and tralatum [to carry over or across; to transfer , transport, convey]. Transf. [to put off, defer; to change]; in writing, [to copy]; [to translate into another language; to use a word figuratively or metaphorically].

transfusio -onis f. [a pouring out , pouring off].

transgressio -onis f. [going over , passage; transposition of words].

transigo -igere -egi -actum [to stab , pierce through]; of time, [to pass, spend]; of business, [to finish, complete, accomplish, transact]; of a difference or dispute, [to settle].

translatio (tralatio) -onis f. [transferring , handing over]; of plants, [grafting]; [a translation; a metaphor, trope].

transmitto (tramitto) -mittere -misi -missum (1) [to send across , send over, transmit; to convey, make over, entrust]; of time, [to let pass]. (2) [to go across, pass through or over; to leave unnoticed].

transpadanus -a -um [beyond (i.e. north of) the Po , transpadane].

transvectio (travectio) -onis f. [a carrying across or past]; esp. [the riding of a Roman knight past the censor at the periodical muster].

transveho (traveho) -vehere -vexi -vectum [to carry over or past]; pass. , [to ride, sail, etc., across]; of a knight, [to ride past the censor at a muster]; of time, [to pass by].

trepido -are [to be agitated , be busy, bustle about]; with acc. [to be anxious about]; with infin. [to be in a hurry to do a thing]; of flame, [to flicker]. Adv. from partic. trepidanter, [anxiously, hurriedly].

tribunicius -a -um [of a tribune , tribunicial]; m. as subst. [an ex-tribune].

tribunus -i m. [a tribune]; 'tribuni aerarii' , [paymasters who assisted the quaestors]; 'tribuni militum', or 'militares', [military officers, of whom there were six to every legion]; 'tribuni plebis', [tribunes of the people, magistrates who protected the plebeians].

tribus -us f. [a tribe , a division of the Roman people].

triduum -i n. [a space of three days].

triennium -i n. [the space of three years].

trientabulum -i n. [the equivalent in land for the third part of a sum of money].

trierarchus -i m. [the commander of a trireme].

trieteris -idis f. [a space of three years or a triennial festival].

trilibris -e [of three pounds' weight].

tripedalis -e [of three feet in measure].

triremis -e [having three banks of oars]; f. as subst. [a trireme].

tristis -e [sad , gloomy, dismal, forbidding, harsh]; of taste or smell, [harsh, bitter]. N. acc. triste used like adv. [harshly].

Triton -onis or -onos m. (1) [Triton , son of Neptune, a god of the sea]. (2) [a lake in Africa, supposed birthplace of Minerva]; adj. Tritoniacus, Tritonius -a -um, and f. Tritonis -idis and -idos, esp. in connection with Minerva.

triumphalis -e [triumphal]. N. pl. as subst. [the distinctions of a triumphing general].

triumvir -viri m. [a triumvir]; usually plur. triumviri (also tresviri) , [a board or commission of three].

triumviralis -e [of a triumvir].

triumviratus -us m. [the office of triumvir].

trivius -a -um [of three ways , of crossroads]; esp. of deities worshipped at crossroads; f. as subst. Trivia -ae, [Diana or Hecate].

trochlea -ae f. [a set of blocks and pulleys for raising weights].

tropaeum -i n. [trophy , monument of victory].

Tros Trois m. [a king of Phrygia , after whom Troy was named]; Troia -ae, f. [the town of Troy, besieged and finally captured by the Greeks]; adj. Trous Troius, Troicus, Troianus -a -um, [Trojan]; subst. Tros Trois, m. [a Trojan]; f. adj. and subst. Troas -ados, [Trojan, a Trojan woman].

truncus -a -um [maimed , mutilated, cut short]. M. as subst. truncus -i, [a lopped tree, the trunk of a tree; the trunk of a human body]. Transf. [a dolt, blockhead].

trutina -ae f. [a balance , pair of scales].

tu pron. of the 2nd person; strengthened forms in -te , -met, temet; [thou, you]; plur. vos, etc. [ye, you].

tuba -ae f. [the straight war-trumpet of the Romans].

tuber (2) -eris m. [a kind of apple tree]; f. [the fruit of this tree].

tubilustrium -i n. [a feast of trumpets].

tudito -are [to strike often].

tueor (or tuor) tueri tuitus and tutus dep. , and tueo -ere, [to look at, regard]; esp. [to look after, watch over, guard]. Perf. partic. as pass. adj. tutus -a -um, [watched over]; hence [safe, secure, out of danger; watchful, cautious]. N. as subst. tutum -i, [a safe place, safety]. N. abl. tuto and adv. tute, [safely].

Tullius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens]; esp. of Servius Tullius , [sixth king of Rome], and of M. Tullius Cicero, [the Roman orator and statesman]. Hence adj. Tullianus -a -um, [Tullian]; n. as subst. Tullianum -i, [part of a Roman state prison].

tumeo -ere [to swell , be swollen, be puffed up; to swell with pride, anger or excitement]; of style, [to be pompous, tumid].

tumidus -a -um adj. [swollen , puffed up; swollen with pride, anger or excitement]; of style, [pompous, tumid, bombastic].

tumor -oris m. [swelling , protuberance; excitement of the mind, esp. in pride or anger]; in gen. [ferment, commotion]; of style, [turgidity, bombast].

tumulosus -a -um [full of mounds , hilly].

tumultuarius -a -um: of troops [hastily brought together , suddenly levied]; in gen. [sudden, hasty, improvised].

tumulus -i m. [mound of earth , hillock, hill]; esp. [a sepulchral mound].

turbamentum -i n. [means of disturbance].

tureus -a -um [of incense].

turgeo turgere tursi [to swell up , be swollen]; of style, [to be pompous, turgid].

turgesco -ere [to begin to swell , swell up; to swell with passion]; of style, [to be pompous].

turgidus -a -um [swollen]; of style , [turgid, bombastic].

turma -ae f. [a troop of cavalry , a squadron; any troop, throng].

turmalis -e [of a troop or squadron].

Turnus -i m. [a king of the Rutuli , killed by Aeneas].

Tuscus -orum m. pl. [the Tuscans , Etruscans, inhabitants of Etruria]; adj. Tuscus -a -um, [Etruscan].

tutela -ae f. [protection , guard, charge]; esp. of wards, etc. [guardianship, tutelage]; concr., act. [protector, guardian]; pass. [the person or thing protected].

tutor (1) -oris m. [a watcher , protector]; esp. [the guardian of a woman, minor, or imbecile].

tuus -a -um possess. pron. of the 2nd pers. sing. [thy , thine, your].

Tydeus -ei and -eos m. [the son of Oeneus]; hence Tydides -ae , m. [son of Tydeus, i.e. Diomedes].

Tyndareus -ei and Tyndarus -i m. [king of Sparta , father of Castor and Pollux, Helen and Clytemnestra]; adj. Tyndarius -a -um; subst. m. Tyndarides -ae, [a male descendant of Tyndareus]; f. Tyndaris -idis, [a female descendant of Tyndareus].

tyrannicida -ae m. [the slayer of a tyrant].

tyrannoctonus -i m. [the slayer of a tyrant].

tyrotarichos -i m. [a dish of cheese and salt-fish].

Tyrus (-os) -i f. [Tyre , a city of Phoenicia, famous for its purple]; adj. Tyrius -a -um.

ubi or ubi [where] (interrog. and relat); of time , [when, as soon as]; of other relations, [wherein, whereby, with whom].

ulcerosus -a -um [full of sores , ulcerous, wounded].

Ulixes -is -i or -ei , m. [Latin name for Ulysses or Odysseus, husband of Penelope, king of Ithaca].

ulmeus -a -um [of elm wood].

ultra adv. and prep. [beyond , on the far side of, farther (than), more (than)].

ultro adv. [to the far side , beyond]; 'ultro et citro', [up and down]. Transf. [besides, moreover; of one's own accord, spontaneously, gratuitously],

ululo -are [to howl , yell]; transit. [to howl to]; of places, [to resound with howling].

umbilicus -i m. [the navel; middle , center; the end of the roller of a scroll; a kind of sea-snail].

umbo -onis m. [a boss , round projection]; esp. [the center of a shield]; [a shield; the elbow].

Umbri -orum m. pl. [a people of central Italy]; Umbria -ae , f. [Umbria].

unanimus -a -um [of one mind , agreeing, unanimous].

unciarius -a -um [of a twelfth part]; 'faenus' , [8 1/3 per cent].

unctura -ae f. [anointing of the dead].

unda -ae f. [water , fluid], esp. [a wave]; fig. [a stream] of people, etc.

unetvicesimani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the twenty-first legion].

unguentarius -a -um [of ointment]; m. as subst. [a dealer in unguents].

unguis -is m. [a finger or toe-nail]; of animals , [claw, hoof]; 'de tenero ungui', [from childhood]; 'ad (or in) unguen', [to a hair, nicely, perfectly].

unicolor -oris [of one color].

unigena -ae [of the same race; only-begotten , unique].

Urania -ae and Uranie -es f. [the Muse of Astronomy].

urbanus -a -um [of a city (esp. Rome) , urban]; hence [refined; elegant; witty; pleasant]; m. pl. as subst. [the inhabitants of a city, the townsfolk]. Adv. urbane, [politely, courteously; wittily, elegantly].

urbs urbis f. [a walled town or city]; esp. [the city of Rome].

urgeo urgere ursi [to push , press, drive, urge; to beset, oppress; to stress]; of work, [to press on with, ply hard, follow up].

urus -i m. [a kind of wild ox].

ustor -oris m. [a burner of corpses].

usura -ae f. [use , enjoyment]; esp. [use of borrowed capital; interest paid for money borrowed].

usurpo -are [to use , bring into use; to take possession of, acquire, appropriate, usurp; to perceive, to notice; to use a word, to mention]; hence [to call, name].

usus -us m. [use , application, practice, exercise; social intercourse, familiarity]; legal, 'usus et fructus, ususfructus', [the use of other's property]. Transf. [practice, skill, experience; utility, usefulness, profit]; 'usui esse, ex usu esse', [to be useful, be of use]; 'usus est', [there is need of, occasion for]; 'usu venit', [it happens].

ut or uti (1) with indic. verb: [how] (interrog. and exclam); relat. [as] , esp. with corresponding sic or ita; 'ut ut' [in whatever way]; explanatory, [as, as being] (sometimes without verb); temporal, [as when, while, since, when]; of place, [where]. (2) with subjunctive: in indirect questions, [how]; in wishes, [o that]; concessive, [granted that]; consecutive, [so that], often preceded by ita, tam, etc.; explaining or defining, [namely that]; final, [in order that] (neg. ne or ut ne); in indirect command, [that, to]; after verbs of fearing (= ne non), [that...not].

uter (1) utris , m. [the skin of an animal used as bag or bottle].

uter (2) utra utrum; genit. utrius , dat. utri; interrog., [which of the two?]; plur. [which side? which set?]; relat., [that (of two) which]; indef., [either of the two].

utercumque (utercunque) utracumque utrumque [whichever of the two].

uterlibet utralibet utrumlibet [whichever of the two you please].

uterque utraque utrumque genit. utriusque , dat. utrique; [each of two]; in plur., usually, [each side, each set]; sometimes of individuals, [both].

utervis utravis utrumvis genit. utriusvis , dat. utrivis; [whichever of the two you please].

utor uti usus dep. [to use , employ; to possess, enjoy]; of persons, [to associate with], or, with a predicate, [to find]. Hence partic. utens -entis, [possessing].

utro [to which of two places? to which side?].

utrobique (utrubique) [on each of two sides; both ways].

uva -ae f. [a bunch of grapes]; meton. [vine]. Transf. [a cluster].

uxorius -a -um (1) [of a wife]. (2) [too devoted to one's wife , uxorious].

vaco -are [to be empty]; of property , [to be vacant, to have no master]; in gen. [to be free from anything, be without; to be free from work, be at leisure]; with dat. [to have time for]; impers., vacat, [there is time (for)].

vacuitas -atis f. [freedom , exemption, immunity; a vacancy in a public office].

vadum -i n. [a shallow , shoal, ford in a river or sea]; in gen. [water, river, sea]; fig. [shallows], typical either of [safety] or of [danger].

vagina -ae f. [a scabbard , sheath, case; the husk of grain].

valeo -ere [to be strong , vigorous, in good health, well; to have force, avail, prevail, be able; to be worth]; of words, [to mean, signify]; as a farewell greeting, vale, or valeas, [farewell, goodbye]; 'valere iubere', [to bid farewell, say goodbye to]. Hence partic. valens -entis, [strong, powerful, healthy]; adv. valenter.

Valerius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

valetudo -inis f. [state of health]; sometimes either [ill health , weakness], or [good health].

validus -a -um [strong , powerful; healthy, well; mighty, influential]; of medicines, [efficacious]. Adv. valide, [strongly, powerfully]; in replies, [certainly, to be sure].

vallum -i n. [a palisade of stakes; a fortification , defence].

vanus -a -um [empty , void; vain, idle, worthless, meaningless]; of persons, [ostentatious, boastful, unreliable].

vapulo -are [to be flogged , beaten, knocked about]; of things, [to be wasted].

Varius -a -um [name of a Roman gens].

varius -a -um [various , manifold, changeable, diverse]; of persons, in bad sense, [fickle, changeable]; adv. varie, [diversely, variously].

vascularius -i m. [a maker of vessels , esp. in metal].

Vaticanus -a -um [Vatican]; 'mons , collis', [the Vatican Hill on the west side of the Tiber].

Vatinius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens].

velitaris -e [of light-armed , troops].

vena -ae f. [a blood-vessel , vein, artery; a water-course; a vein of metal; a vein of talent, disposition, natural inclination].

venalicius -a -um [of the sale of slaves]; m. as subst. [a slave dealer].

venaticus -a -um [of or for the chase].

venatorius -a -um [of or for the chase].

vendito -are [to offer for sale , try to sell; to praise, advertise].

veneo venire venii venum [to go for sale , be sold] (used as pass. of vendo).

venio venire veni ventum [to come]; in course of time , [to happen, come, arrive; to grow, arise].

ventito -are [to come often , resort].

ventosus -a -um [full of wind , windy; swift or light as wind; puffed up, vain; changeable, inconstant].

venucula (vennucula) -ae f. [a kind of grape].

venumdo (venundo) -dare -dedi -datum [to offer for sale , to sell].

venus -eris f. [charm , loveliness; love; a loved one]; personif. Venus, [goddess of love; the Venus throw, highest throw of the dice]; adj. Venereus (-ius) -a -um, [of Venus or of love].

Venusia -ae f. [a town on the borders of Lucania and Apulia , birthplace of Horace].

ver veris n. [spring]; 'primo vere' , [in the beginning of spring]; 'ver sacrum', [an offering of the firstlings].

verbena -ae f. , often in plur., [sacred boughs carried by the Fetials].

Vergilius -i m. P. Vergilius Maro , [author of the Aeneid, Georgics, and Eclogues].

Verginius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens].

vergo vergere versi intransit. [to bend , be inclined, verge]; of time, [to draw to an end]; transit. [to bend, turn, incline].

veritas -atis f. [the truth , reality; truthfulness, telling of truth]; in gen. [honesty].

vernaculus -a -um [of a slave born in the house; a native].

vernus -a -um [of spring , vernal].

Verona -ae f. [a town in northern Italy , birthplace of Catullus].

verrinus -a -um [of a boar].

versicolor -oris [of various colors].

versificatio -onis f. [making of verses].

verso (vorso) -are [to turn about , turn this way and that; to bend, ply, twist; to influence, agitate; to turn over in the mind, think of]. Pass. [to be about, hover, resort; to be engaged, take part, be employed].

versura -ae f. [turning; the borrowing of money to pay a debt]; hence [a loan].

versus (1) (vorsus) -us m. [a row , line; a line of writing, verse].

vertex (vortex) -icis m. (1) [a whirl , eddy, whirlwind, gust]. (2) [the crown of the head]; in gen. [head, summit, elevation]. (3) [the pole of the heavens].

verto (vorto) vertere verti versum [to turn , turn round, turn up]; intransit. [to turn oneself]; milit., 'vertere in fugam', [to put to flight, rout]; 'terga vertere', [to flee]; [to interpret, construe, understand in a certain way; to impute; to alter, change; to translate; to change for another, exchange]; 'vertere solum', [to go into exile]; [to upset, overthrow]; pass. or intransit., of time, [to roll round]; pass. [to move in a certain sphere, to depend on, center in].

Vertumnus (Vortumnus) -i m. [god of the changing year].

vesanus -a -um [mad , insane]; of things, [furious, wild].

vesica -ae f. [the bladder; a purse , a lantern]; of style, [bombast].

vespertinus -a -um [of evening; western].

Vesta -ae f. [goddess of the hearth and domestic life]; adj. Vestalis -e , [Vestal]; f. as subst. [a Vestal virgin, priestess of Vesta].

veterinus -a -um [of draught]; 'bestia' , [a beast of burden].

veto (voto) vetare vetui vetitum [to forbid , prohibit]; n. of perf. partic. as subst. vetitum -i, [that which is forbidden; a prohibition].

vetus -eris superl. veterrimus; [old , ancient, of long standing; experienced]. M. pl. as subst. [the ancients].

vetustas -atis f. [age; antiquity , past time; long duration, length of time (including future time)].

vetustus -a -um [old , ancient, of long standing; old-fashioned, antiquated].

vexillarius -i m. [a standard-bearer]; in plur. [a corps of veterans , a reserve].

vicesimani -orum m. pl. [soldiers of the twentieth legion].

vicis (genit. , nom. not found); [change, interchange, alternation]; 'per vices', [alternately, reciprocally]; [recompense, retaliation; the vicissitude of fate, lot, destiny; one's place, office, duty]; 'vicem, vice, in vicem, ad vicem', [in place of, instead of, like].

victima -ae f. [an animal offered in sacrifice , victim].

victoriatus -i m. [a silver coin stamped with a figure of Victory].

victoriola -ae f. [a small statue of Victory].

victus -us m. [living; manner of life; nourishment , food].

vicus -i m. [part of a town , a street; a village, hamlet; an estate, country-seat].

videlicet [it is clear]; as adv. [clearly , plainly, manifestly; namely]; ironically, [of course, to be sure].

video videre vidi visum [to see; to perceive , notice, observe; to look into a matter, see to, provide for]. Pass. [to be seen; to seem, appear, be thought]; also [to seem good, seem right]. N. of perf. partic. as subst., visum -i, [a sight, appearance, vision].

viduo -are [to deprive]; f. of perf. partic. viduata -ae , [widowed].

vigilia -ae f. [wakefulness , sleeplessness, watch; a watch of the night; the watch, sentinels]; fig. [watchfulness, vigilance, care].

vigintiviratus -us m. [the office of the vigintiviri].

vigintiviri -orum m. pl. [a commission of twenty].

vilicus -i m. [a bailiff , steward, overseer of an estate]; f. vilica -ae, [a bailiff's wife].

villum -i n. [a little sip of wine].

Viminalis collis [one of the seven hills of Rome].

vimineus -a -um [of osiers , wicker].

vinarius -a -um [of wine]; as subst. [a wine-jar].

vindemiator -oris m. [a harvester of grapes].

vindiciae -arum f. pl. [things or persons claimed as property; the making of a claim]. Transf. [protection].

vinosus -a -um [full or fond of wine].

violarium -i n. [a bed of violets].

vipereus -a -um [of a viper or snake; snaky].

viperinus -a -um [of a viper or snake].

vir viri m. [a man , male person]; esp. [a grown man; a husband; a man of character or courage, 'he-man']; milit. [a soldier, esp. an infantryman; a single man, individual].

virgatus -a -um (1) [made of twigs]. (2) [striped].

virgeus -a -um [of twigs or rods].

virilis -e [manly , male, virile; of a grown man, adult; courageous, spirited]; 'pro virili parte', [to the best of one's ability]. Adv. viriliter, [manfully].

virus -i n. [slimy liquid , slime; poison, esp. of snakes, venom; any harsh taste or smell].

vis acc. vim , abl. vi; plur. vires -ium, f. [force, power, strength; might, influence]; in sing. also [violence]; [a large number, quantity; the force, nature, meaning of a thing]; plur., milit., [troops, forces].

visceratio -onis f. [public distribution of meat].

viscus -eris usually plur. viscera -um , n. [flesh]; also [internal organs, entrails; inmost part or heart of anything].

visito -are [to see often; to visit].

vitalis -e [of life , vital; living, surviving]; adv. vitaliter, [vitally].

Vitellius -a -um [the name of a Roman gens]; Aulus Vitellius , [the Roman emperor who succeeded Otho (A.D. 69)].

vitellus -i m. [the yolk of an egg].

viteus -a -um [of a vine].

vitreus -a -um [of glass; glassy , transparent, glittering].

vitulinus -a -um [of a calf]; 'assum' , [roast veal]; f. as subst. [veal].

vitulus -i m. [a bull-calf]; also of the young of other animals.

vividus -a -um [full of life , animated, vigorous; lifelike].

vocito -are [to be accustomed to name; to shout loudly or often].

volaema pira n. pl. [a kind of large pear].

Volcanus (Vulcanus) -i m. [Vulcan , the god of fire, husband of Venus].

volo (2) -are , [to fly; to move rapidly, rush]; f. pl. of partic. volantes -ium, [birds].

volsella -ae f. [a pair of tweezers].

volubilis -e [rolling , revolving, turning round; changeable, inconstant]; of speech, [rapid, fluent]; adv. volubiliter, [fluently].

volubilitas -atis f. [turning , revolution; roundness; inconstancy, flow of words, fluency].

voluntas -atis f. [will , wish, inclination]; esp. [goodwill]; [last will, testament]; of words, etc. [meaning, sense].

volvo volvere volvi volutum [to wind , turn, roll, twist round]; in pass., [to roll]. Esp. [to unroll a book, to read]. Transf., of time, [to make roll by]; of persons, [to turn over in the mind, consider; to experience, go through].

vos [you] , plur. of tu; q.v.

votivus -a -um [of a vow , votive, vowed].

votum -i n. [a vow , promise to the gods; a votive offering]; in gen., [prayer, wish, desire].

vulturinus (volturinus) -a -um [of or like a vulture].

vultus (voltus) -us m. [expression of face , countenance, look, aspect]. Transf. [face].

Xerxes -is m. [king of the Persians , defeated at Salamis].

Zeno (Zenon) -onis m. [name of several Greek philosophers].

zonarius -a -um [of a girdle]; m. as subst. [girdle-maker].


casus -us m. [a falling , fall]. Transf.: (1) [what befalls, an accident, event, occurrence]. (2) [occasion, opportunity]. (3) [destruction, downfall, collapse]; and, in gen., [end]. (4) in grammar, [a case].

clades -is f. [destruction]; in gen. , [disaster, injury, defeat].

deflagratio -onis f. [burning , destruction by fire].

dissolutio -onis f. [breaking up , dissolution, destruction] ; 'naturae', [death]; 'navigii', [shipwreck]; 'criminum', [refutation]; rhet., [want of connection].

disturbatio -onis f. [destruction].

eversio -onis f. [overturning , destruction, ruin].

excidium -i n. [overthrow , destruction].

excisio -onis [destruction].

exitium -i n. [going out or away]; hence [destruction , ruin]; also [a cause of destruction].

flamma -ae f. [a flame , blazing fire]; Transf.[a source of light, torch, star, lightning; luster, glitter; the fire or glow of passion; devouring flame, destruction].

funus -eris n. [a funeral , burial]. Transf., [the corpse; death; destruction, ruin; a cause of ruin].

incendium -i n. [a conflagration , fire; a torch, firebrand]; of passion, [fire, glow, heat]; in gen., [destruction, ruin].

interitio -onis f. [destruction , ruin].

interitus -us m. [destruction , ruin].

mors mortis f. [death , a corpse; a cause of death or destruction].

obitus -us m. [an approach]; of heavenly bodies , [setting]; of the living, [death, downfall, destruction].

occasus -us m. [the setting of heavenly bodies]; hence [the west]; in gen. [fall , destruction].

occidio -onis f. [slaughter , destruction, extermination].

permities -ei f. [destruction , annihilation].

pernicies -ei f. [destruction , disaster, ruin, bane].

pestis -is f. [pest , pestilence, plague; destruction, ruin; curse, bane].

ruina -ae f. [falling down , collapse, ruin, destruction; the ruins of a building, debris].

sacer -cra -crum [sacred , holy, consecrated]; in bad sense, [accursed, devoted to destruction, horrible]. N. sing. as subst. sacrum -i, [a holy thing or place; a sacrifice or victim]; n. pl. [sacred rites, worship].

Siren -enis f. usually plur. Sirenes -um , [the Sirens, nymphs who by their song lured mariners to destruction].

venenum -i n. [a drug; poison (fig. ruin , destruction); a love-potion; coloring matter, dye, rouge].